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lent rupture of Oxford all at once turned to the profit of the court. Without intrigues, without a struggle, from a simple displacing of those immense forces which the exclusion party had not been able to conduct to the point of civil war, royalty, just before about to succumb, again became all-powerful, and its adversaries lost even their existence as a party. Every class of interest, all shades of opinion, united in the desire to avert civil war, to put an end to a state of agitation which must lead to it, accepted the new promises of the king, if not as a guarantee for liberty, at least as so much time gained. All those who from principle, passion or interest, did not allow themselves to be led away by this general movement, were fain to conceal themselves or remain silent; the only class which adhered to them being the lowest ranks of the populace.
The high clergy had been threatened as well as the court; it looked upon this victory as its own; it had the king's manifesto read to the people in all the churches, and declaimed from the pulpits against those who, under the pretext of combating popery, had desired to bring back the revolutionary regime. Addresses in reply to the declaration came from all parts of the kingdom : the grand juries, the quarter-sessions, cities, boroughs, corporations, hastened to declare their adhesion to the great change which had just taken place. Some of the addresses confined tbemselves to the expression of their confidence in the good intentions of the king, others congratulated him on his frank reconciliation with the church of England; but the majority were a condemnation of the principles upon which it had been attempted to exclude the duke of York; some of the most energetic denounced the acts of the two last parliaments as rebellion; some went so far as to demand that the penal laws should be put in force against the Nonconforming Protestants; the addresses of the old cavalier party were either ridiculous rhodomontade, or an apology for all that the royal government had done against the principles of the Revolution Most of the citizens who presented their addresses were made knights. They gave one another banquets, at which they drank with vehement enthusiasm the health of the king and the duke of York; as to popery, there was now no more said about it, than though it had never inspired a fear in England.'—pp. 155-157.
The connexion of the opposition leaders during the period we have reviewed, with the French king, has been matter of severe crimination. The fact is beyond dispute, though the extent to which it proceeded is matter of question. It was conducted through the French ambassadors, Barillon and Rouvigny, and commenced about the spring of 1678. Lords Russell and Hollis are free from the suspicion of having received money, though others, amongst whom we regret to find the name of Algernon Sidney, are not equally exempt. Sums of five hundred or three hundred guineas are represented by Barillon as having been taken by them, in token of the French king's favour. We
se revicon. The fais matter ors, Barillon Lords ved money
proceedech ambassade of 167 having feed the naundred
should be glad to discredit Barillon's accounts, and there are not wanting circumstances wbich involve their accuracy in suspicion. On the whole, however, our judgment inclines to an admission of the fact, nor is it difficult for a candid mind to discover, not a justification certainly, but a solution of it, consistent with the integrity of the parties concerned. They knew that Charles relied on the French king, and must probably have felt that, if the latter entered thoroughly into his interests, it would scarcely be possible to preserve the liberties of England. They might, therefore, not unreasonably think, that it was expedient to keep up a good understanding with France; to countermine the plots of the court, of which Versailles was known to be the scene; to fight their king with his own weapons, that he might thus at least be disarmed, and the danger which threatened from his French ally be averted. Such, we apprehend, was their reasoning; and there is one thing which strongly corroborates the supposition. They never deserted the popular cause, nor swerved even for an instant from their fidelity to it. What they were before their communications with Louis they continued to be afterwards. His foreign schemes may possibly have been aided, though of this we have no clear evidence, but on English ground and in relation to English liberty, they abided, with all integrity and zeal, by their professions. So much is due to their memory, but it would bave been better for their reputation, and, on the whole, better for their country too, if they had eschewed the arts of intrigue, and kept themselves free from the suspicion of corruption. The true strength of patriotism lies in its obvious integrity. Anything which involves this in doubt is a national evil, which a sense of public duty, as well as a regard to personal repute, should urge all popular leaders to avoid. The advocates of liberty, in order to fulfil their high vocation, should be like Cæsar's wife.
The court was not slow in improving its present advantage. Many of the charters of the kingdom were cancelled, the nonconformists were bitterly persecuted, and legal proceedings were instituted against some of the most eminent members of opposition. The trials of Russell and Sidney are well known, and need not be dwelt on. They were conducted with brutal ferocity; the laws of evidence were grossly violated, and the verdicts of the juries were foregone conclusions. The execution of these illustrious patriots speedily followed, and the record of their virtues, and of the calm dignity with which they met their fate, is sacred to every true Englishman. Their names are lisped by our children, and will live in the national memory so long as the spirit of freedom survives.
Thus far we have attempted to sketch a brief outline of the
Counter-Revolution, recorded by M. Carrel. From this period the supremacy of James, duke of York, dates, but we must defer to some future opportunity any notice of his despotism and folly.. Our limits are already exceeded.
In the translation of M. Carrel's work, an acceptable service has been rendered to the English reader, for which we tender our thanks. In the event, however, of a second edition, we counsel its being carefully revised. It bears marks of haste, and in some instances scarcely succeeds in rendering the meaning of the author intelligible.
Art. VIII.-1. Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap-Book, 1847. By the
Hon. Mrs. Norton. Fisher, Son, and Co., London. 2. The Juvenile Scrap-Book. By the Author of the Women of
England. 1847. Fisher, Son, and Co., London. 3. The Gallery of Scripture Engravings, Historical and Landscape, with
Descriptions, Historical, Geographical, and Pictorial. By John Kitto, D.D., F.S.A., Editor of the Cyclopædia of Biblical Lite
rature, &c. &c. Volume I. Fisher, Son, and Co., London. The children of the present generation ought to be much wiser than their predecessors. Every method which ingenuity can devise is adopted for their instruction, and the richest and noblest productions of the human mind are placed within their reach, as soon as their intellects are sufficiently matured to qualify them for their perusal. We anticipate large results from the cheapening of our standard literature, and shall be much disappointed if the race now springing up into life be not better informed, on all points, conducive to human improvement and happiness, than those of us who are passing off the stage. Whilst gratified by the diffusion of useful knowledge, we are also pleased to notice the increased attention which is given to works of art. This has been very observable for some years past, and the class of Annuals, though not destined, we imagine, to endure for ever, has contributed certainly to familiarise the public mind with some of the choicest productions of British art. They have promoted, if not created, a want previously unfelt, and are now giving place to other works of more permanent value.
· Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap-Book' again solicits public favour in a garb of tasteful elegance, and under the able editorship of the Hon. Mrs. Norton. It appears this year with its accustomed splendour, embellished with beautiful portraits of the Queen and Prince Albert; on the former of which Mrs. Norton has written rather a long poem, from the commencement of which we extract a few lines.
• A fair face, and a fragile arm,
In England's present hour,
And England treasures glorious days,
Such trust need not be vain.' The editor gives us as her frontispiece a likeness of her own beautiful face, in which is distinctly marked superiority of intel. lect, loftiness of sentiment, warm and ardent feeling, with an eye speaking the softer and deep-loving powers of her soul. In gazing on her countenance, we cannot avoid the wish that she had been placed in the midst of a domestic circle, where her better qualities would have been appreciated, rather than in the sphere which has proved so unfriendly to their growth. The volume contains thirty-six beautifully executed engravings, including The Anglers, Lord Byron's room in the Moncenigo Palace, The Cominon Loss, and The Fountain of Vaucluse, with several portraits of eminent persons, amongst which are admirable likenesses of Richard Cobden, Esq., and of the Hon. C. P. Villiers. The poetry is certainly superior, and we feel some difficulty in making our selection from its many beauties. The Departure of Hagar, The Anglers, Christ and the Leper, The Gates of Rome and the Gates of Heaven, and many others, are written with great taste and sensibility. The soliloquy of Mrs. Harris while threading her needle, by Lady Dufferin, we subjoin, for the entertainment of our readers. * Ah deary me! what needles ! Well, really I must say, All things are sadly altered (for the worse, too) since my day! The pins have neither heads nor points—the needles have no eyes, And there's ne'er a pair of scissors of the good old-fashioned size! The very bodkins now are made in fine new-fangled ways, And the good old British thimble—is a dream of other days! Now that comes of machinery!-I'm given to understand, That great folks turn their noses up at all things done by hand,' Altho' its easy proving to the most thick-pated dunce, That things ar’nt done the better for all beiug done at once.
I'm sure I often ponder, with a kind of awful dread
Ah! that comes of those radicals! Why, life's a perfect storm,
Mrs. Ellis has not been unmindful of the claims of her young friends at this season of the year, and her annual, “The Juvenile Scrap Book'_will be sure to receive what it fully merits—their cordial welcome. She has spared neither pains nor trouble to render it both attractive and useful. The latter, as usual, she has kept prominently in view, believing, as she tells us, 'that her young friends will never find themselves more happy than when thinking on subjects worthy of thought. The volume contains five tales, written with animation and taste, and a tone of healthful sentiment prevails throughout, which cannot fail to benefit the class of youthful readers for whom it is intended. There are sixteen very creditably executed engravings; and of