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consider. It is this: is it consistent or right for you to de nounce the state endowment of religion in words, and to sustain it in deeds ?-to pull down with the one hand, and to build up with the other?—to declare that regium donum is scripturally wrong and politically unjust, and yeť to aid in upholding it? to aver that state churches are not churches of Christ, and yet to give the whole weight of your character and influence to support and perpetuate them? We speak as unto wise men, judge ye what we say.'

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Art. VI.—Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.

Edited by Wm. Smith, Ph. D., editor of The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities.' Parts 1-XVI. 8vo. Taylor and Wal

ton, London. In the brief review of the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, inserted in this journal in the month of November, 1843, we noticed the first four parts of the ' Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.' In that review we succinctly indicated the principles on which these works were constructed; and bestowed our warmest commendation on the manner in which the learned and respected editor, and his band of able coadjutors, had prosecuted their onerous task. In that article we stated the impossibility of satisfactorily exhibiting, in the shape of a review, the just value and importance of works of this encyclopædical character, whether in the way of analysis of their contents, or the selection of adequate specimens. That impossibility prevents our now doing anything more than reporting the progress which has been made in the publication of the ‘Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology ;' and reiterating, which we do very sincerely, the praises which we then bestowed. The first volume, extending to no less than 1,093 closely and beautifully-printed pages, in double columns, is completed; and the second volume, as far as the 880th page. Of the whole work, sixteen parts have been issued; the closing pages of the last bringing us to the letter · N.' The work is, throughout, illustrated by well-executed engravings, of ancient coins, gems, and medals. The following judicious remarks, from the editor's Preface,' will show the comprehensiveness of the plan on which the work is projected, and the care which has been taken to secure its accurate and adequate accomplishment.

• The present work has been conducted on the same principles, and is designed mainly for the use of the same persons, as the Dictionary

of Greek and Roman Antiquities.' It has been long felt by most persons engaged in the study of Antiquity, that something better is required than we yet possess in the English language, for illustrating the biography, literature, and mythology, of the Greek and Roman writers; and for enabling a diligent student to read them in the most profitable manner. The writings of modern continental philologists, as well as the works of some of our own scholars, have cleared up many of the difficulties connected with these subjects, and enabled us to attain to more correct knowledge, and more comprehensive views, than we formerly possessed. The articles in this dictionary have been founded on a careful examination of the original sources: the best modern authorities have been diligently consulted, and no labour bas been spared, in order to bring up the subject to the present state of philological learning upon the continent, as well as at home.

*A work like the present, embracing the whole circle of ancient history and literature, for upwards of two thousand years, would be the labour of at least one man's life ; and could not, in any case, be written satisfactorily by a single individual, as no man possesses the requisite knowledge of all the subjects of which it treats. The lives, for instance, of the ancient mathematicians, jurists, and physicians, require, in the person who writes them, a competent knowledge of mathematics, law, and medicine ; and the same remark applies to a greater or less extent, to the history of philosophy, the arts, and no. merous other subjects. The editor of the present work has been fortunate in obtaining the assistance of scholars who had made certain departments of antiquity their particular study; and be desires to take this opportunity of returning his best thanks to them for their valuable aid-by which he has been able to produce a work which could not have been accomplished by any single person. The initials of each writer's name are given at the end of the articles he bas written, and a list of the names of the contributors is prefixed to the work.

• The biographical articles in this work, include the names of all persons of any importance, who occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest times, down to the extinction of the Western empire, in the year 476 of our era ; and to the extinction of the Eastern empire, by the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, in the year 1453. The lives of historical personages occurring in the history of the Byzantine empire, are treated with comparative brevity ; but accompanied by sufficient references to ancient writers, to enable the reader to obtain further information, if he wishes' * * *


* More space, relatively, has been given to the Greek and Roman writers, than to any other articles ; partly because we have no complete history of Greek and Roman literature in the English language, and partly because the writings of modern German scholars contain, on this subject, more than on any other, a store of valuable matter, wbich has not yet found its way into English books; and has hitherto

only partially, and, in a few instances, exercised any influence on our course of classical instruction. In these articles, a full account of the works, as well as of the lives of the writers, is given; and likewise a list of the best edition of the works, together with references to the principal modern works on each subject.

The lives of all Christian writers, though usually omitted in similar publications, have likewise been inserted in the present work, since they constitute an important part of the history of Greek and Roman literature; and an account of their biography and writings can be attained at present only by consulting a considerable number of voluminous works. These articles are written rather from a literary than a theological point of view, and, accordingly, the discussion of strictly theological topics, such as the subjects might easily have given rise to, has been carefully avoided.

Care has been taken to separate the mythological articles from those of a bistorical nature, as a reference to any part of the book will show.'

*The lives of painters, sculptors, and architects, have been treated at considerable length, and an account is given of all their works still extant, or of which there is any record in ancient writers. These articles, it is hoped, will be useful to the artist, as well as to the scholar,'

The principles thus indicated have been fully and fairly applied throughout the work; and if, as we have no reason to doubt, it should be completed with as much spirit as it has hitherto been carried on, it will constitute an invaluable repository of Greek and Roman Mythology and Biography, and, we may add, in the lawful sense of the word, history; for all the principal names, as, for example, Cæsar, Cicero, Hannibal, are treated with a copiousness and particularity which involve a very thorough elucidation of the history of the periods in which they respectively lived. Some of the articles in the work are in fact so ample that, if printed separately, they would form volumes of no inconsiderable magnitude. We once more, and most cordially, recommend the work to the patronage of the public.

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Art. VII.Lives of the Queens of England. By Agnes Strickland.

Vol. 8. pp. 478. London : Colburn. Fallen upon evil times, the queens of Charles the First, and Charles the Second suffered greatly, though from different causes. If the ties which bound them to their lords were severed in the one instance by the sword, in the other they were subjected to a slow corrosive process, which though less violent, was, perhaps, more painful. In the case of Henrietta Maria, it was an enemy who did it ; but Catharine of Braganza was wounded in the house of her friend. The purifying storm which swept over England in the time of Charles the First, scattered for a time the domestic affections to the winds; but those affections and all others that were worth preserving, pined and withered in the noxious atmosphere of the court of Charles the Second

The days of Henrietta Maria began in misfortune, and if she passed through life by a royal road, it only made her the more conspicuously wretched. She was born at the Louvre 25th November, 1609, n. s., and was only six months old when taken to attend the funeral of Henry the Great. Her next public appearance was in the cathedral at Rheims at the coronation of her brother Louis XII., when she was ten months old. When between two and three years old, she was present at the nuptial festival of her sister Elizabeth with the king of Spain; and at the age of six years she accompanied her mother to Bourdeaux to deliver the young queen of Spain to her hus. band.*

It was during the escapade of Charles 1. in his romantic expedition to Spain, in hopes of seeing the Infanta Maria Althea, and of expediting by his personal endeavours the match which every one else appeared to be occupied in delaying, that he saw for the first time the young daughter of Henri Quatre at the court of the Queen Regent, Mary de Medicis; and it appears to have been from Elizabeth of France, the young queen of Spain, that the proposal was first made to him to take for his wife her sister the princess Henriutia Maria. The objections to the match with the bufanta of Spain on the ground of her being a Roman-catholic, held good, also, with regard to the connexion with Henrietta, but not to the same extent. The danghter of Henry the Great of France, ouce (and probably always in heart) « Protestant, wili ter more acceptable to the English people, than the grand-langhter of Philip 11., the most savage persecutor of the Protestants. They would certainly have preferred a Protestant princess, and their existing discontents were undoubtedly augmented and exascerbated by the consequences of the Catholic alliance. Pope Urban vill. in some respects one of the best pontiff's who had ever filled the papal throne, and who had been one of the sponsors for the infant Henrietta, during his residence in France, when Cardinal Barbarini, was greatly averse to the match, from which he prognosticated nothing but misfortune : acutely enough for. seeing, on the one hand, from the temper and sentiments of the English nation, that if the Stuarts should relax the penal laws against the Catholics, they must do it at the peril of their crown; and on the other, that if they followed out and enforced those enactments, the queen, as a Catholic herself, could enjoy no happiness in her adopted country. The two courts resolved, however, on the marriage, and the treaty contained two articles from which resulted the most lamentable consequences. The first was, that the children of the marriage should be brought up under the care of their mother till their thirteenth year; the other stipulated for a relaxation of the laws against the Catholics; and James i. immediately acted on it, by ordering the release of all persons imprisoned for religion; the return of all fines levied on recusants; and the stoppage of the execution of all Papists convicted under the penal laws. To the former article we shall have occasion to refer hereafter; the enforcement of the latter was, as Pope Urban had predicted, the virtual commencement of the civil war. The objections of the pontiff appear to have been so strong, that he would not permit his nuncio to deliver his breve of dispensation for the marriage, till the queen-mother of France resolved to act without it. Had the first measures of Henrietta and her party in England been dictated by common prudence, much of the uneasiness which followed might have been avoided. It seems, however, to have been the intention of her mother, and the object of all her Roman Catholic attendants, to prevent the slightest concession on the part of the young queen to the opinions of her husband, or the wishes of his people. Though her mother could not accompany her, she put into her hand, at parting, a letter, of a tendency the most unwise, and containing directions the most inimical to her future peace and well-being, and of course to those of her husband.

* There must be some confusion of dates bere, unless three years elapsed after the marriage of her sister before she was delivered to her husband.

The blame of Henrietta's conduct attaches most to her weak and bigotted mother, and the mischievous imbeciles with whom she surrounded her daughter; who at that period was a mere girl of sixteen, of unformed judgment and somewhat capricious temper, but capable under wiser management of better things.

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