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into ridicule; which he effects by As a writer, Celsus does not giving the reins to his own imagina. appear to have been either acute or iion, distorting the narrative of the profound; bis opinions upon the Evangelists, or drawing false con. subjects of philosophy and religion clusions from what they relate. to have been unsettled, and Thus he speaks with much inde are often contradictory; and his cency and profaneness of the birth objections to Christianity are such of our Lord; represents him as would present themselves to having learned the art of magic in almost any mind that takes up the Egypt, and as taking to himself ten Bible with a determination to exor eleven men,-vile publicans and plain it in a way inconsistent with sailors,-going about with them, the idea of its divine origin. Ac. and getting his subsistence in a vile, cordingly, we find that many of his base, and shameful manner. A sin. arguments have been repeated by gle example may suffice of the man infidels, age after age; and after ner in which he misrepresents the being a thousand times refuted, they principles of the Christians. “That are still advanced with apparently I say nothing more
undiminisbed confidence in their truth obliges me to say, is manifest force and originality. hence :- when others invite to the About a hundred years after Celmysteries, they invite men after this sus flourished Porphyry,t the bittermanner, “Whoever has clean hands est and perhaps the most formidable and a good understanding; or who- of all the early enemies of Christian. soever is pure from vice, whose soul ity. The same remark, however, is conscious of no evil, and lives may be extended to his works that according to the law of righteous we applied to that of Celsus ; name. ness; let him come hither. Now, ly, that they only contain speculalet us see whom they invite. “Who- tive reasonings and bitter raillery, ever,' they say, “is a sinner, who instead of an examination of the ever is ignorant, whoever is silly, facts which support the Gospel, or and, in a word, whoever is misera. an attempt to invalidate their evible, these the kingdom of God dence. Porphyry was a Syrian by receives.' Whom do you mean by birth, his name was Melek, I which * sinners?' Do you not thereby Longinus changed into Porphyry. intend thieves and robbers, prison- He was a man of great learning and ers, sacrilegious, and the like? eloquence. Neander finely characAnd what else would men say who terizes him as having recast an oriaim to form a society of the worst ental spirit in a Grecian mould. of men ?”* The reply of Origen is Among his voluminous works there as follows :-“ It is one thing to were fifteen books against the Chris. invite sick souls to come to be tians, of which nothing now remain healed, and another thing to call such but fragments. Answers were writas are cured to partake of higher mys ten to this work soon after it apteries. We who know the differ. peared by Eusebius of Cæsarea, Meence of these two things, first invite thodius, and, at a later period, by men to come and be healed, and we Apollonarius. But these replies exhort sinners to attend to those have also perished. Modern intidels who teach men not to sin; and the have complained that the Christians ignorant and unwise we exhort to suppressed what they could not hearken to those who will teach answer; and an edict of Constantine, them wisdom, the weak we exhurt to aim at manly wisdom, and the miser
† Socrates speaks of Porphyry as having been able we invite to accept of happiness,
a Christian, H. E., iii., 23, but apparents with
out grounds. or, to speak more properly, blessed. # Melek signifies "a King” in the Sirise ; ness. And when they whom we have hence he is called Bao llevs, sometimes Malchus, admonished have made some pro
with the Latin termination. He is called Batagress, and have learned to live well,
neotes by Jerome and Chrysostom. then they are initiated by us.”
f He studied under Longinus, who changed
his name into a word signifying " purple,"—Norn * Orig. c. Cels., I. iii., p.
by kings. (Eunap. P'orph., p. 16.)
commanding the books of Porphyry quity. Such a work might have to be burnt, has been represented as been expected from a man who illustrative of the means which the seems to have wished to unite a phi. Christians were ready to employ in Josophic theism with a popular polysupport of their cause.
Such an theism. The great proportion of edict is inserted in the histories by the learned, accordingly, have conSocrates and Sozomen ; but there is sidered it as genuine. On the other not wanting reason to suppose that hand, Lardner endeavours to show, they were imposed upon by a for from internal evidence, that the gery; the heathen enemies of Con production was the forgery of some stantine, Julian, Zosimus, and Christian writer who assumed the others, have not charged him with character of a Heathen, that he this instance of false zeal, and there might with better effect introduce is no allusion to the subject in any some oracles calculated to recom. contemporary Christian writer. But mend the Christian religion. The though there had been such an Philosophy of Oracles" is quoted edict, we cannot ascribe to it the by Eusebius to show that an loss of the books by Porphyry, gument in favour of the truth copies of which were in existence of Christianity may be found in after the time of Constantine. The the Oracles of Apollo. In that truth seems to be, that Porphyry's work it is stated, that some of attack upon Christianity and the the Heathens consulted the oracle answers to it fell gradually into whether Christ might be ranked oblivion.
among the gods : the oracle replied, From the fragments which still “ The wise man knows that the soul remain of the works by Porphyry, is immortal, but the soul of that it appears that he argued against man is most eminent for its piety.”I the truth of the Gospel history, They further asked, why Christ had from the contradictions which it suffered death: the answer
was, seemed to involve, and from the “To be subject to moderate tor. improbable nature of much that is ments is the fate of the body; but recorded; that he endeavoured to the souls of the pious go and take show that our Saviour was often their station in the heavenly manactuated by weakness and caprice ; sions." S We can scarcely suppose and that from the differences be that Eusebius would ascribe to Portween Peter and Paul, he sought to phyry a treatise not written by him. show that they could not be men And it is to be observed, that Porcommissioned to teach a revelation phyry only quotes these oracles, || from heaven ;* he also brought for and the use that he might have made ward many ohjections against the of them remains uncertain. He might Old Testament Scriptures, and he
been deceived concerning devoted a whole book (the 12th) to them; and whether the responses show that, from the plainness of were forged or actually delivered, many of the prophecies of Daniel as may be doubtful. It is certain that to the Kings of Syria and Egypt, the oracles were consulted respectthey were written after the events. There is another work ascribed to
+ Οττι μεν αθανατη ψυχη μετα σωμα
προβαινει Porphyry, entitled, “ The Philoso
Γιγνωσκει σοφιη τετιημενος, αλλαγε phy of Oracles ;”+ which professed ψυχη to be a system of theology deduced Ανερος ευσεβιη προφερεστατη εστιν from the pretended oracles of anti
(Euseb. Dem. Evang., lib. iii., p. 134.)
και Σωμα μεν αδρανεσιν βασανοις * Neander mentions his finding fault with the προβεβληται: allegorizing an arbitrary manner, which a cer Ψυχη δ' ευσεβεων εις ουρανιον σεδον tain theological school indulged, and that this IŠEL.
(Idem, lib. iii.) objection comes with an ill grace from a Plato | This is the view taken by Fontenelle; who nist; but Porphyry mentions that the method is strangely referred to by Fabricius (Bib. Gr., was borrowed from the followers of Plato. (See t. iv., p. 191) and Lardner, (vol. vii, p. 444,)as Euseb., H. E., vi. 19.)
being of opinion that the work is not genuino, Η Περι της εκ Λογιων Φιλοσοφιας. (See his Hist. des Oracles, chap. iv.)
ing Christ, and it is not improbable derful works were performed by the that the responses might vary ac assistance of Satan. Tillemont has cording to the opinions of the treated him with too much bodour, Priests. On the other hand, the when he says, that he was one of responses favourable to Cbrist might the most dangerous enemies ! that be forged by some Christian or by the Christians had in the beginning, some Heathen. Neander is of opi- and that Satan seems to have sent nion, that the responses in the him into the world about the same “ Philosophy of Oracles" were actu time with Jesus Christ, either to ally delivered, for that no Christian balance his authority in the minds would have had the prudence to of those who should take his cheats speak with so little decision; and for true miracles, or to induce those that the example of these heathen who looked upon him as a deceiver, oracles induced Christians to com. to doubt also of the miracles of pose others which are known to be Christ. Cudworth entertained a forgeries.*
similar opinion. Neander takes a Hierocles, Governor of Bithynia, different view, and speaks of him as a cruel persecutor of the Christians, possessed of extraordinary gifts, and was the author of a work against even perhaps under the influence of their religion, entitled, “A Truth, the Spirit; though destroying the loving Discourse addressed to the talent intrusted to him. Christians.”+ In this treatise, In regard to the character and which was published about the be- actions of Apollonius, as set forth ginning of the fourth century, many by his biographer, admitting them of the arguments of Celsus and Por- to be in any degree comparable to phyry are repeated. But Hierocles those of our Saviour, as described does not rest his cause chiefly upon in the New Testament, there is to these arguments; and the great be observed a decided difference in design of his book is to compare the evidence which we possess of Apollonius Tyanæus with Jesus their reality. The books of the Christ, and to show that Apollonius New Testament were written soon was the superior character. “You after the death of our Lord, by those regard,” says he, “ Christ as a god, who had been witnesses of what he because he restored a few blind men had said and done, and when there to sight, and did a few things of a similar kind; while Apollonius, who
f Hist. Eccles., tom. i., pp. 20, 213, 237, &c. performed so many miracles, is not
| Hist. Eccles., tom. i., p. 264. on that account held by the Greeks
“ It is a thing highly probable, if not as a god, but only as a man espe unquestionable, that Apollonius Tyanæns, cially beloved by the gods.”I And shortly after the publication of the Gospel to the taking for granted the truth of all world, was a person made choice of by the
policy, and assisted by the powers, of the king. that is recorded of Apollonius, he
dom of darkness, for the doing some things ex. runs a parallel between his life and
traordinary, merely out of design to derogate that of Christ, to the disadvantage from the miracles of our Saviour Jesus Christ, of the latter. From the time of and to enable Paganism the better to bear up Hierocles, Apollonius was consi
against the assaults of Christianity. For amongst dered as the hero of the old religion; and particularly Philostratus, seem to have had
the many writers of this philosopher's life, some, and even among Christian writers, no other aim in this, their whole undertaking, there are many who have attached than only to dress up Apollonius in such a carb more importance to the life and cha and manner as might make him best seem to be racter of this vain impostor than
a fit corrival with our Saviour. Eunapius,
therefore, telling us that he mis-titled his book, they deserve. Fleury has intro.
and that instead of 'ATOMAwvlov Blos, “The duced a full account of his history, Life of Apollonius,' he should have called it, and seems to consider that his won Θεου εις Ανθρωπους Επιδημιαν, “The Coti
ing down and Converse of God with Men ;'. for
asmuch as this Apollonius,' saith he, was not a * Neander, K. G., vol. 1., p. 270.
bare philosopher or man, αλλα τι θεων και + Λογοι φιλαληθεις προς τους Χριστια ανθρωπου μεσον, but a certain middle thing
betwixt the gods and men.'" (Intellectual Sys• | Euseb. Contr. Hier., p. 511.
tem, p. 265.)
were thousands alive who might in Cappadocia, of an ancient family, detect any attempt to deceive ; while possessed of excellent talents, had our chief knowledge of the life of an imposing appearance, and was Apollonius is from memoirs written not without
virtues. He upwards of a hundred years after attached himself to the sect of his death. Philostratus, the author Pythagoras, practised great absti. of this piece of biography, under nence, observed the law of silence took the work at the request of the for five years; and by some inEmpress Julia, wife of Septimius stances of great disinterestedness, Severus," who put into his hands an by the severe tenor of his life, account of the sayings and divina (though not without the suspicion tions of Apollonius, by Damis, who of concealed vicious indulgences,) had been his constant companion. and by his pretences to inspiration, He had also the benefit of and perhaps partly by his singulariaccount of Apollonius by one Maxi ties of walking barefooted and dressmus, and the last will and testa. ing himself in flax, he gained much ment of the philosopher. Such is notoriety, and was followed by the account given by Philostratus many admirers. He was a great himself of his materials ; and it is traveller, like those of his sect; and obvious that nothing can be more wherever he went he recounted the unsatisfactory. We have, in the wonders he had witnessed and perfirst place, no information as to the formed. Many miracles are ascribed accuracy of the memoirs by Damis; to Apollonius; but they are either nor do we know if Philostratus made obviously fabulous, or they can be a faithful use of them. In this way explained by natural causes. For his narrative is without the evidence example : it is related that he renecessary to give us confidence in stored a young woman to life; but, its truth.
according to the showing of his bioOn the other hand, conceding the grapher himself, there were symphistory to be true, Apollonius is toms that life had not left her.t very far from being a perfect cha- The time of his death is not known; racier; and inost of the marvellous but it is supposed to have been things ascribed to him may easily about the year 97. Statues were he accounted for, without the inter. erected to his honour, and divine vention either of miraculous or magi- worship in some places was paid to cal agency. He was a native of Tyana himn.
+ Idem, lib. iv., cap. 45. See also Euseb. * Philostr., lib. i., cap. 3.
Contr. Hier., p. 530, &c.
ROME AND THE REFORMATION.*
I now return to Avignon, and to Gascony, and the Italian Cardinals, the thoughts which occupied me, had long and violently disputed towhile gazing upon its ancient walls. gether. At length the Gascon CardiI had just descended the river, the nals set fire to the palace. The greater same which John XXII. also de part of the town was reduced, and scended, when, succeeding to Cle. the conclave dispersed.* Under ment V., he came to Avignon, con the intervention of the French Go. tinuing to find there the seat of vernment the election recommenced the Popedom. The election had at Lyons. The Italians obstinately been a stormy one. It began at insisted that the new Pope should Carpentras. The Cardinals from fix his residence at Rome. “I
swear,” exclaimed John XXII., * Rome and the Reformation: or, a Tour in
“that I will never mount horse or
Baluz. I., p. 113.
mule, except to go to Rome.” He dungeons, the dark abodes, a was, in consequence, elected; and haughty Minos, a devouring Mino. he kept his oath, continues the his. taur, or the shameful retirement of torian; for he went from Lyons to an abandoned Venus, that are wantAvignon by water. Upon arriving ing there ; but that which is want. in that city, he proceeded on foot ing is charity, is faith, is a thread to the palace, which he never left to guide one out of those tortuous but to go to the principal church, and complicated ways, an Ariadne, which closely adjoins to that resi- and a Dædalus. There is no hope dence.* This is the way in which of safety there but in gold. It is the Popes keep their oaths.
with gold that Kings are appeased, it The Papacy continued to be fixed is with gold that monsters are overat Avignon, from the year 1309 to come ; it is with gold that rocks the year 1377. This seventy years? are cleft, it is with gold that gaolers captivity, as it was called, stripped are mollified....What shall I say? the sovereign Pontiff of the glory ....It is at the price of gold that which had so long surrounded him. Christ himself is sold !.... Here all The Popes from henceforth were that is good is lost, and the first forced to bow to the least wishes good, liberty, with the rest. Here of the Court of France, and it was truth is folly, sobriety is grossness, only in secret that they dared to act modesty is ignominy, licentiousness with anything like independence. magnanimity. The more polluted a
And yet never was the Pope ex life is, the more illustrious; the alted to so high a pitch as during more criminal, the more glorious. his residence at Avignon.
“ Can I will not speak of that heresy we appeal from the Pope to God?” which makes a traffic of the gifts asks a Doctor. “No," he answers, of the Spirit, or of that covetous“for an appeal can only be made ness which, the Apostle says, is ido. from a lesser Judge to his superior; latry....Old men, forgetting their and none is greater than himself : age and their weakness, are inflamed the judgment of the Pope and the with concupiscence, and are supk judgment of God are the same in shame, place all their glory, not thing.”+ And another Doctor as. in the cross of Christ, but in drunkserts, “To believe that our Lord enness and revelling, in chambering God the Pope had not power to and wantonness. And when they decree what he did decree, is he. have reached the extreme of old resy." I
age, they consider it a gain and a I could scarcely turn my eyes glory to do what even young men from those walls, where the Pontiff's, would not dare to do. I pass over who assumed the name of God him in silence the seductions that take self, verifying this scripture, “Show- place, the rapes, the incests, the ing himself that he is God,” adulteries, which are the amuse(2 Thess. ii. 4,) gave themselves up, ments of pontifical licentiousness; at the same time, to the most disso women carried off from their hus. Jute course of life. Petrarch, who bands, while these latter are driven lived long at the pontifical court from their homes, their country, of Avignon, has left us the most and at length constrained to take frightful picture of the corruption back their dishonoured wives.”'S that reigned there. He calls it Thus spoke Petrarch of the Pope “the third Babylon, and the fifth and of his court, where he himself labyrinth. It is not the horrible resided.
I cannot express the disgust I * Baluz. I., p. 178.
felt, as my eyes rested on the apos† Augustini Triumphi Summa, quest. vi., tolic palace, as it is called, the thea1683, 1601, 1612. In the later editions this word is omitted.
$ Et violatas conjuges, externo semine grari# Zenzelius in his comment on the Extrava das, rursus accipere. gance of John XXII., tit. xiv., cap. 4, at the Petrarcha Epistolarum sine Titulo Lib. (Ep. end. The word “God" is in the Lyons editions X., 14, 16, 18.) Compare Nicholas de Clemnangis, of 1506, 1606, and in those of Paris.
De Ruiné Ecclesia.