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to eight hundred. The castle, the writing, in which the points of con. common prisons, the convents, and troversy between the Church of even private houses, were crowded Roine and the Protestants were with the victims. Eighty persons discussed at considerable length. were committed to prison at Valla. When this volume was shown to dolid. When the alarm was first him, he acknowledged at once that given, many were so thunderstruck it was in his hand-writing, and con. as to be unable to take the least tained his sentiments,
It is un. step for securing their safety. Some, necessary,” added he, “to produce not knowing what they were doing, further evidence : you have there a ran to the house of the Inquisition candid and full confession of my and informed against theinselves. belief. I am in your hands : do Others, in attempting to make their with me as seemeth to you good.” escapo, were pursued and overtaken; No arts or threatenings could preand some, who had reached a Pro- vail on him to give any information testant country, becoming secure, respecting his associates. Though fell into the snares laid for then his Judges did not put him to the by the Papal spies, were forcibly rack, they had him thrust into a carried off, and brought back into low, damp, and noisome vault, Spain. These events occurred in where he endured more than some of 1558. Philip, who was then King his brethren did from the application of Spain, Valdes, the Inquisitors of the engines of torture. Oppressed General, and Pope Paul IV., were and worn-out with such a mode all heartily united in their efforts to of living, he was heard to exclaim, extirpate what they called heresy. “O my God! were there no ScyOne law of Philip ordained the thians, or cannibals, or Pagans still punishment of death, with confis more savage, that thou hast percation of goods, against all who mitted me to fall into the hands of sold, bought, read, or possessed these baptized fiends ?” At length, any book forbidden by the Inquisi. putrid air and unwholesome diet, tion. And a Bull was issued by together with grief for the ruin of the Pope, at the request of Philip the Reformed cause in his native and Valdes, authorizing the Supreme country, brought on a dysentery, Council to deliver to the secular which terminated his life, after he arm, to be burned, all who were had been nearly two years in conconvicted of having at any time finement. His effigy and his bones taught the Lutheran opinions, even were brought out and burped in a though they had not relapsed, and public procession at Seville, in Dewere willing to recant.
cember, 1560. One of the first among those Of the cruel and abominable deapprehended at Seville, was Con- vices used for the purpose of prostantine Ponce de la Fuente, who curing evidence to convict those had been Chaplain to Charles V. who were imprisoned on charge When summoned before the Judges, of heresy, the following is one spehe maintained his innocence, chal- cimen. Among the Protestants lenged the public prosecutor to show seized at Seville, was the widow of that he had done anything criminal, Fernando Nugnez, with three of her and repelled the charges brought daughters and a married sister. As against him with such ability and there was no evidence against them, success, as threw his adversaries they were put to the torture, but into great perplexity. The Inqui- refused to inform against one anositors, however, having, through ther. Upon this, the presiding Inthe treachery of a servant, obtaired quisitor called one of the young possession of a quantity of books women into the audience-chamber; which Constantine Ponce had for and, after conversing with her for security deposited in the house of some time, professed an attachment an opulent' widow, found among
to her person.
Having repeated thein, besides various heretical this at another interview, he works, a volume of his own hand told her that he could be of no
service to her, unless she imparted By the side of the platform occuto him all the facts of her case; pied by the Inquisitors, was erected but if she did this, he would ma a box which the royal family could nage the affair in such a way that enter without interruption from the she and all her friends should be set crowd, and in which they had a full at liberty. Falling into the snare, view of the prisoners. The spectathe unsuspecting girl confessed to cle continued from six in the mornhim that she had at different times ing till two in the afternoon; dur. conversed with her mother, sisters, ing which time the people exhibited and aunt, on the Lutheran doc no symptoms of impatience, nor trines. The wretch immediately did the Queen retire until the whole brought her into court, and com was concluded. pelled ber to declare what she had The prisoners brought forth on owned to him in private. Nor was this occasion amounted to thirty; this all: under pretence that her of whom sixteen were reconciled, confession was not sufficiently am and fourteen delivered over to the ple and ingenuous, she was put to secular power. Of the last class ihe torture by the most excruciating two were thrown alive into the engines; and thus evidence was flames, while the others were preextorted from her which led, not viously strangled. The greater part only to the condemnation of herself of those who were reconciled, and and her relations, but also to the had their lives spared, were people seizure and conviction of others, of high rank and connexions. They who perished in the flames.
were all deprived of their honours The time having at length arrived and offices, their property was confor the exhibition of the last scene fiscated, and most of them were of this horrible tragedy, orders were condemned to wear a perpetual san issued by the Supreme Council of benito, and to be imprisoned for life. the Inquisition for the celebra- One of them, the wife of Don Juan tion of several public autos-de-fé, Alonso de Fonseca Mexia, was a or “acts of faith,” in various parts very accomplished lady, understood of the kingdom. Those which the Latin language well, and was took place at Seville and Valladolid familiar with the writings of Calvin, were most noted for the pomp with and others of the Reformers. She which they were solemnized, and appeared in the san benito, and was for the number and rank of the condemned to be separated from her victims. They were always cele- husband, and to spend her days in brated on a Sunday or holy day, in a monastery. the largest church, or in the most Among those who were delivered spacious square of the city or town. over to the secular arm, was Dr. Public intimation was given before. Augustin Cazalla, formerly Chaphand, in all the churches and reli- lain to the late Emperor. During gious houses in the neighbourhood. his confinement he underwent free The attendance of the civil autho. quent examinations; and being conrities, as well as of the Clergy, was ducted into the place of torture, his required; and with the view of courage failed; and promising to subattracting the multitude, an indul. mit to his Judges, he made a declara. gence of forty days was proclaimed tion in which he confessed that he to all who should witness the cere had embraced the Lutheran doctrine, monies of the act.
but denied that he had ever taught The first public auto was cele. it, except to those who were of brated at Valladolid, May 21st, the same sentiments with himself. 1559, in presence of Don Carlos, This answered all the wishes of heir-apparent to the crown, and his the Inquisitors; who, though they aunt Juana, Queen-Dowager of Por were determined on his death, kept tugal, and Governor of the king him in suspense with the view of dom during the absence of her procuring additional information brother Philip II., besides a great from him. The night before the concourse of persons of all ranks. auto, a Monk who was sent to bim,
said, in answer to his inquiries, that that I had a complete view of his if he would confess all that the person, and observed all his mowitnesses had deposed against him, tions and gestures. He could not mercy might perhaps be extended speak; for his mouth was gagged, to him. Well, then," said Ca. account of the blasphemies zalla, “I must prepare to die in the which he had uttered ; but bis grace of God; for it is impossible whole behaviour showed him to be for me to add to what I have said a most resolute and hardened perwithout falsehood.” On the scaf son, who, rather than yield to befold, seeing his sister Constanza lieve with his companions, was passing among those who were determined to die in the flames. condemned to perpetual imprison. Though I marked him narrowly, ment, he pointed to her, and said I could not observe the least sympto the Princess Juana, “ I beseech tom of fear, or expression of pain ; Your Highness, have compassion only there was a sadness in his on this unfortunate woman, who countenance beyond anything I had has thirteen orphan children." At ever seen. It was frightful to look the place of execution, having in his face, when one considered addressed a few words to his fellow that in a moment he would be in prisoners, in the character of a peni- hell, with his associate and master, tent, he obtained the poor favour Luther.” Enraged to see such of being strangled before his body courage in a heretic, one of the was committed to the fire. His guards plunged his lance into the Confessor was so pleased with his body of Herezuelo, whose blood behaviour as to say, he had no was licked up by the flames with doubt that Cazalla was in heaven. which he was enveloped.
The two individuals who had the Leanor de Cisneros, wife of He. honour to endure the flames, were rezuelo, had been thrown into the Francisco de Vibero Cazalla, parish prisons of the Inquisition, when Priest of Hormigos, and Antonio only twenty-two years of age. She Her«zuelo, an Advocate of Toro. was precluded from all intercourse The former, seeing his brother, Dr. with her husband, kept ignorant Augustin Cazalla, not at the stake, of his resolutions, and perhaps
the adjoining scaffold, deceived into the belief that she among the penitents, and being would find him in the class of peni. prevented from speaking by the gag, tents at the auto. Hence it is not signified his sorrow by an expres. to be wondered at, that she suffered sive motion of his hands; after herself to be overcome by the perwhich he bore the fire without suasions of the Monks, and conshrinking. Herezuelo evinced great sented to renounce with the hand intrepidity. From the time of his that truth which she continued to apprehension, he never exbibited believe with the heart. Such asany wish to save his life, or to miti- saults have shaken, and threatened gate his sufferings, by abandoning to overthrow, pillars in the church; his principles. His courage re as was the case with the illustrious mained unshaken amid the horrors Cranmer. But Leanor was not of the torture, the ignominy of the long in recovering from the shock. public spectacle, and the terrors of Her husband's parting look was the stake. The only thing that never forgotten. The reflection moved him, on the day of the auto, that she had inflicted a pang on his was the sight of his wife in the heart, during the arduous confict garb of a penitent; and the look which he had to maintain, strengthwhich he gave as he passed by ened her secret attachment to the her (for he could not speak) Reforined religion; and having seemed to say, “This is hard to resolved, in dependence on divine bear.” “Herezuelo,” says Illescas, strength, to emulate the example a Popish writer, " suffered himself of constancy set by her husband, to be burned alive with unparalleled she broke off the course of penance hardihood. I stood so near him, on which she had entered. Here.
upon she was again thrown into a chapel of which she had been proprison; and during the eight years prietor. No suspicion of heresy that she was kept in continement, attached to her at the time of her every effort was made, but without death; but on the imprisonment of success, to induce her to renew her her children, the officers of the recantation. At last
process brought out in a public auto at Val. against her. Certain witnesses, ladolid; and her behaviour is thus under the torture, having asserted described by the Popish author that her house was used as a temIllescas. “In the year 1568, on ple for the Lutherans, sentence was the 26th of September, justice was passed, declaring her to have died executed on Leanor de Cisneros, in a state of heresy, pronouncing widow of Herezuelo. She suffered her memory to be infamous, and herself to be burned alive, notwith- her property to be confiscated. standing the great and repeated Orders were also given that her exertions made to bring her to a bones should be dug up, and, conviction of her errors. Finally, together with her etfigy, publicly she resisted what was sufficient to committed to the flames; that her melt a stone, an admirable sermon house should be taken down, the preached at the auto of that day, ground on which it stood be sown by the Bishop of Zamora.
with salt, and a pillar, with an innothing could move the impenetrable scription stating the cause of its heart of that obstinate woman.” demolition, be erected on the spot.
One part of the solemnities in the All this was actually done, and the first auto at Valladolid, though not pillar, standing as a monument of so shocking as some other scenes fanaticism and ferocity against the which were then exhibited, was a dead, remained till the year 1809, flagrant violation of justice and when it was removed during the ochumanity. Dona Leanor de Vibero, cupation of Spain by the French.* the mother of Dr. Cazalla, and of
W. P. B. four other persons, who appeared as criminals in this auto, had died
* See M'Crie's "History of the Progress and some years before, and was buried in Suppression of the Reformation in Spain."
ON THE EARLY WRITERS AGAINST CHRISTIANITY.
It has been disputed whether the an amusing tale, is represented by next individual to be mentioned is Bishop Warburton as a laboured to be classed among those who have defence of Paganism. The theory incidentally alluded to Christianity, by Warburton, though it may be as one among the many objects of untenable, is well deserving of actheir satire, or whether he is to be tention, on account of the ingenuity considered as a systematic assailant and learning he has brought to supof the new faith. I allude to the port it. celebrated Apuleius, whose “Gol Apuleius, who flourished about den Ass," which has generally been the middle of the second century, looked upon in no higher light than was a native of Madaura, in Africa.
He devoted himself to the Platonic “ Elements of Church History. Vol. I. philosophy, was a man of great inComprising the external History of the Church formation, and wrote several works during the first three centuries. By David which are characterized by learning Welsh, D.D., F.R.S. E., Professor of Divinity and ingenuity.
He married a rich and Church History, New-College, Edinburgh; widow, named Pudentilla, against formerly Regius Professor of Divinity and Church History in the University of Edinburgh. the will of the relations of her first Thomas Clark, Edinburgh.”
husband, who charged Apuleius
with having employed sorcery and that period. I The fable of the Ass magic to engage her affections. is founded on a tale in the collection Apuleius conducted his own cause of Lucius of Patræ. It opens with a before the Proconsul of Africa; and representation of a young man (per. he has introduced a character of his sonated by Apuleius) sensible of the accuser, who was a Christian. This advantages of virtue and piety, but circumstance had escaped commen. addicted immoderately to pleasure, tators till the time of Warburton and curious of magic. Having The passage is interesting, as a pic- occasion to travel to Thessaly, he ture of the elegant superstitions of lodged in the house of a female ma. the Romans, and as illustrative of gician, whose maid-servant stole for the manner in which the rites of him a box of ointment which was to Paganism were incorporated with all convert him into a bird. By an unthe ordinary actions and scenes of lucky mistake, however, when he life. After mentioning his initia- rubbed himself over with the ointtions into the mysteries of several ment, he found himself transformed deities, Apuleius goes on to remark, into an ass. This transformation “But I know some, and especially was to continue till he did away the that Æmilian, (brother to Puden- enchantment by eating the leaves of tilla's first husband, by whom the roses; and the remainder of the present accusation was carried on) book is occupied with his adven. who laughs at all these things and tures wbile in this state. It conderides them; for as I bear, from tains some beautiful tales, and altothe accounts of those who know gether, were it not for its abominathem well, he has never yet made ble indecencies, it would be a very supplication to any god, nor wor entertaining work. There is one shipped in any temple. When he
passage, and only one, that in any passes by a consecrated place, he way relates to Christianity; and it esteems it a crime to put his hand certainly is of such a nature as to his mouth by the way of adora. would seem to favour the idea that tion; nor does he consecrate to the his object was to outrage our holy gods of agriculture, who feed and faith.”'S Among the various masclothe him, any first-fruits of grain, ters into whose hands he fell, there or of the vine, or of his flocks. was a baker who bought him, “a Nor is there in his country-seat any good sort of man,” says he, “and chapel, nor indeed any consecrated not unreasonable ; but the woman grove, or other place whatever. But whom he had married was of so why do I talk of groves and cha execrable a character, and led him pels? They who have been there such a life at bed and board, that say they never saw in his territories
even I could not but pity his lot. so much as a stone anointed with In the whole catalogue of vices there oil, or a crowned bough. Insomuch was not one that she wanted, and that there are two surnames given there was nothing good about her. him; Charon, as I said before, be.
She was perverse, passionate, selfcause of the fierceness of his look and temper; the other is Mezentius,
# Warburton compares it to the modern Araupon account of his contempt of the
The Milesians were a colony of gods, which last-mentioned name
Greeks wlio spoke the Ionic dialect. Of the tales possibly he likes the best of the which they invented the name only now remains;
but they found their way into Italy under a The most celebrated of the writ
Latin translation by Sisenna, the Roman histo
rian, about the time of the civil wars between ings of Apuleius is the “Golden
Marius and Sylla, and gave for a long period a Ass.”+ It was represented by the direction to the public taste. Those who take author as a Milesian fable, a species an interest in this subject, may find some carious of writing exceedingly popular at information in the ingenious work by Mr. Dun.
lop, on the History of Fiction.
§ “ He draws the character of a woman stained * Apolog., p. 496.
with every vice, and then, to finish all, he + The epithet of Aurcus was early added by makes her a Christian." (Warburton's Divino its readers on account of its excellence.
Legation, vol. i., p. 310.)