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to be assembled, with as many Roman troops as them their lives and liberty. Pompey, thinking Pompey should think proper: the expense of himself no longer safe at Capua after the reduewhich was defrayed from the public treasury. tion of Corfinium, retired to Brundusium, to The governments of provinces were bestowed carry the war into the east, where all the goupon such as were remarkable for their attach- vernors were his creatures. Cæsar followed him ment to Pompey. Cæsar, however, took care close; and, arriving with his army before Brunof his own interest : three of the tribunes who dusium, invested the place on the land side, and had been his friends were driven out of Rome, undertook to shut up the port by a staccado of and arrived in his camp disguised like slaves. his own invention. But, before the work was Cæsar showed them to his army in this ignomi- completed, the fleet which had conveyed the two nious habit; and, setting forth the iniquity of consuls with thirty cohorts to Dyrrhachium benig the senate and patricians, exhorted his men to returned, Pompey resolved to make his escape, stand by their general under whom they had which he did with all the dexterity of a great served so long with success; and, finding by officer. He kept his departure very secret; but their acclamations that he could depend on them, made all necessary preparations for facilitating he resolved to begin hostilities immediately. it. Walling up the gates, he dug deep and wide
Cæsar's first design was to make himself mas- ditches cross all the streets, except only two that ter of Ariminum, a city bordering upon Cisal- led to the port; in the ditches he planted sharp pine Gaul, but he resolved to keep his design pointed stakes, covering them with hurdles and private. At that time he himself was at Ra- earth. After these precautions, he gave express venna, whence he sent a detachment towards the orders that all the citizens should keep within Rubicon, desiring the officer who commanded it doors, lest they should betray his design; and to wait for him on the banks of that river. The then, in three days, embarked all his troops, exnext day he assisted at a show of gladiators, and cept the light armed infantry, whom he had placed made a great entertainment. Towards the close on the walls; these likewise, on a signal given, of the day he rose from table, desiring the abandoning their posts, repaired with great er: guests to stay till he came back; but, instead of pedition to the ships. Cæsar, perceiving the returning to the company, he set out for the Ru- walls unguarded, ordered his men to scale then, bicon, having left orders to his most intimate and make what haste they could after the enemy. friends to follow him through different roads, to In the heat of the pursuit they would have fallen avoid being observed. Having arrived at the into the ditches which Pompey had prepared Rubicon, which parted Cisalpine Gaul from for them, had not the Brundusians warned them Italy, the misfortunes of the empire occured to of the danger. In the haven they found all the his mind, and made him hesitate. Turning then feet under sail, except two vessels, which had to Asinius Pollio, 'If I do not cross the Rubi- run aground in going out of the harbour. These con,' said he, 'I am undone; and, if I do cross it, Cæsar took, made the soldiers on board prisoners, how many calamities shall I by this means bring and brought them ashore. Seeing himself, by upon Rome! Having thus spoken, he mused a the flight of his rival, thus master of all Italy few minutes; and then, crying out the die is from the Alps to the sea, Cæsar wished to follow cast,' he threw himself into the river, and, cross- and attack Pompey before he received his suping it, marched with all possible speed to Ari- plies from Asia. But, being destitute of shipping, minum, which he reached and surprised before he resolved to go to Rome, and settle the goday-break. Thence, as he had but one legion vernment there; then pass into Spain to expel with him, he despatched orders to the army he Pompey's troops, who had possession of that had left in Gaul to cross the mountains and join great peninsula, under Afranius and Petreius. him. The activity of Cæsar struck the opposite Before he left Brundusium he sent Scribonius party with the greatest terror. Pompey, no less Curio with three legions into Sicily, and ordered alarmed than the rest, left Rome with a desire to Q. Valerius, one of his lieutenants, to get toretire to Capua, where he had two legions draught- gether what ships he could, and cross over with ed formerly out of Cæsar's army. He communi- one legion into Sardinia. Cato, who commanded cated his intended flight to the senate; but ac- in Sicily, upon the first news of Curio's landing quainted them that, if any magistrate or senator there, abandoned the island, and retired to the refused to follow him, he should be treated as camp of the consuls at Dyrrhachium ; and Q. an enemy to his country. In the mean time Valerius no sooner appeared with his small fleet Cæsar, having raised new troops in Cisalpine off Sardinia, than the Caralitini (the inhabitants Gaul, sent Marc Antony with a detachment to of what is now called Cagliari), drove out Aureseize Aretium, and some other officers to secure lius Cotta, who commanded there for the senate, Pisaurum and Fanum, while he himself marched and put Cæsar's licutenant in possession both of at the head of the thirteenth legion to Auximum, their city and island. In the mean time Caesar which opened its gates to him. From Auximum advanced towards Rome, and on his march wrote he advanced into Picenum, where he was joined to all the senators then in Italy, desiring them to by the twelfth legion from Transalpine Gaul. repair to the capital, and assist him with their As Picenum submitted, he led his forces against counsel. Above all, he was desirous to see Corfinium, the capital of the Peligni, which Cicero; but could not prevail upon him to reDomitius Ahenobarbus defended with thirty turn to Rome. As Cæsar drew near the capital, cohorts. But Cæsar no sooner invested it than he quartered his troops in the neighbouring mathe garrison betrayed their commander, and de- nicipia ; and then advancing to the city, out of livered him up with many senators, who had respect to ancient custom, he took up his quartaken refuge in the place, to Cæsar, who granted ters in the suburbs, whither the whole city
crowded to see the conqueror of Gaul, who had he continued his march into Spain, where he: been absent nearly ten years. Such of the tri- began the war with all the valor, ability, and bunes of the people as had fled to him for refuge success of a great general. Pompey had three reassumed their functions, mounted the rostra, generals in this peninsula, which was divided and endeavoured to reconcile the people to the into two Roman provinces. Varro commanded head of their party: Marc Antony particularly, in Farther Spain; and Petreius and Afranius, and Cassius Longinus, moved that the senate with equal power, and two considerable armies should meet in the suburbs, that Cæsar might in Hither Spain. Cæsar, while yet at Marseilles, give them an account of his conduct. Accord- sent Q. Fabius, with three legions, to take posingly, such of the senators as, were at Rome session of the passes of the Pyrenees, which assembled ; when Cæsar made a speech in justi- Afranius had seized. Fabius executed his fication of all his proceedings, and concluded commission with great bravery, entered Spain, his harangue with proposing a deputation to and left the way open for Cæsar, who quickly Pompey, with offers of an amicable accommo- followed him. As soon as he had crossed the dation. He even desired the senate, to whom mountains, he sent out scouts to observe the he paid great deference, to nominate some of enemy; by whom he was informed that Afranius their venerable body to carry proposals of peace and Petreius having joined their forces, consist to the consuls, and the general of the consular ing of five legions, twenty cohorts of the natives, army; but none of the senators would take upon and 5000 horse, were advantageously posted on him that commission. He then, to provide him- a hill of an easy ascent, in the neighbourhood of self with money for carrying on the war, had Ilerda, in Catalonia. Upon this Cæsar advanced recourse to the public treasury. Metellus, one within sight of the enemy, and encamped in a of the tribunes, opposed him: but Cæsar, laying plain between the Sicoris and Cinga, now the his hand on his sword, threatened to kill him, Segro and Cinca. Between the eminence on and Metellus withdrew. Cæsar took out of the which Afranius had posted himself and the treasury, which was ever after at his command, city was a small plain, and in the middle of it an immense sum; some say 300,000 pounds a rising ground, which Cæsar attempted to seize, weight of gold. With this supply of money he to cut off the communication between the eneraised troops all over Italy, and sent governors into my's camp and Ilerda, whence they had all their all the provinces subject to the republic. Cæsar provisions. This occasioned a sharp dispute benow made Marc Antony commander-in-chief of tween three of Cæsar's legions and an equal the armies in Italy, sent his brother C. Antonius number of the enemy, which lasted five hours to govern Illyricum, assigned Cisalpine Gaul to with equal success, both parties claiming the Licinius Crassus, appointed M. Æmilius Lepi- victory. But Afranius's men, who had first dus governor of the capital ; and, having got io- seized the post, maintained it. Two days after gether some ships to cruise in the Adriatic and this battle, continual rains, with the melting of Mediterranean seas, he gave the command of one the snow on the mountains, so swelled the two of his fleets to P. Cornelius Dolabella, and of rivers between which Cæsar was encamped that the other to young Hortensius, son of the famous they overflowed, broke down his bridges, and orator. As Pompey had sent governors into the laid under water the neighbouring country to a same provinces, a war was thus kindled in al- great distance. This cut off the communication most all the parts of the known world. How- between his camp and the cities that had declared ever, Cæsar would not trust any of his lieute- for him; and reduced him to such straits that nants with the conduct of the war in Spain, his troops were ready to die for famine, wheat which was Pompey's favorite province, but took being sold in his camp at fifty Roman denarii it upon himself; and, having settled his affairs per bushel, that is, £1 12s. 14d. sterling. He at Rome, returned to Ariminum, and assembled tried to rebuild his bridges, but in vain, the bis legions there.
violence of the stream rendering all his endeaIn Transalpine Gaul he was informed that the dours fruitless. Upon the news of Cæsar's disinhabitants of Marseilles had resolved to refuse tress, many of the senators, who had hitherto him entrance into their city, and that L. Domitius stood neuter, hastened to Pompey's camp. Of Ahenobarbus, whom he had generously pardoned this number was Cicero; who, without regard and set at liberty after the reduction of Cor- to the remonstrances of Atticus, or the letters finium, had set sail for Marseilles with seven Cæsar himself wrote to him, desiring him to galleys, having on board a great number of his join neither party, left Italy, and landed at clients and slaves, with a design to raise the city Dyrrhachium, where Pompey received him with in favor of Pompey. Cæsar sent for the fifteen great joy. But the joy of Pompey's party was chief magistrates of the city, and advised them not long-lived. For Cæsar, after having attempted to follow the example of Italy, and submit. several times in vain to rebuild his bridges, The magistrates returned to the city, and soon caused boats to be made with all possible expeafter informed him that they were to stand neu- dition; and while the enemy were diverted by: ter; but in the mean time Domitius, arriving endeavouring to intercept the succors that were with his small squadron, was received into the sent him from Gaul, he laid hold of that opporcity, and declared general of all their forces. tunity to convey his boats in the night in carHereupon Cæsar invested the town with three riages twenty-two miles from his camp; where legions, and ordered twelve galleys to be built at with wonderful quickness a great detachment Arelas to block up the port. But as the siege passed the Sicoris, and encamping on the opproved tedious he left C. Trebonius to carry it posite bank, unknown to the enemy, built on, and D. Brutus to command the fleet, while bridge in two days, opened a communication.
with the neighbouring country, received the The war he was now entering upon was the most supplies from Gaul, and relieved the wants of difficult he had yet undertaken. Pompey had his soldiers. Cæsar, being thus delivered from for a whole year been assembling his troops from danger, pursued the armies of Afranius and all the eastern countries. When he left Italy Petreius with such superior address, that he he had only five legions; but, since his arrival at forced them to submit without coming to a Dyrrhachium he had been reinforced with one battle, and thus became master of all Hither from Sicily, another from Crete, and two from Spain. The two generals disbanded their Syria : 3000 archers, six cohorts of slingers, and troops, sent them out of the province, and re- 7000 horse, had been sent him by princes in alturned to Italy, after having solemnly promised liance with Rome. All the free cities in Asia never to assemble forces again, or make war had reinforced his army with their best troops; upon Cæsar. Upon the news of the reduction Greece, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, of Hither Spain, the Spaniards in Farther and all the nations from the Mediterranean to Spain, and one Roman legion, deserted from the Euphrates, took up arms in his favor. He Varro, Pompey's governor in that province, had almost all the Roman knights in his squadwhich obliged him to surrender his other legion rons, and his legions consisted mostly of veterans and all his money. Cæsar, having thus reduced inured to the toils of war. He had also under Spain in a few months, appointed Cassius Lon- him some of the best commanders of the repubginus to govern the two provinces with four le- lic, who had formerly conducted armies themgions, and then returned to Marseilles, which selves. As for his navy, he had above 500 ships was just surrendering after a most vigorous re- of war, besides a far greater number of small sistance. Though the inhabitants had by their vessels, which were continually cruising on the late treachery deserved a severe punishment, coasts, and intercepted such ships as carried yet he granted them their lives and liberty ; but arms or provisions to the enemy. He had likestripped their arsenals of arms, and obliged them wise above 200 senators, who formed a more to deliver up all their ships. From Marseilles numerous senate than at Rome. Cornelius Cæsar marched into Cisalpine Gaul; and thence Lentulus and Claudius Marcellus, the last year's to Rome, where he laid the foundation of his consuls, presided in it at Thessalonica, where he future grandeur.
built a stately hall for that purpose. There, on He found the city in a very different state the motion of Cato, it was decreed that no Ro from that in which he had left it. Most of the man citizen should be put to death but in battle, senators and magistrates were fled to Pompey at and that no city subject to the republic should Dyrrhachium. However, there were still prætors be sacked. They also decreed that they alone there; and among them M. Æmilius Lepidus, represented the Roman senate, and that those afterwards a triumvir. The prætor, to ingratiate who resided at Rome were encouragers of himself with Cæsar, nominated him dictator by tyranny, and friends of a tyrant. Many persons his own authority, and against the inclination of of eminent probity, who had hitherto stood the senate. Cæsar accepted the new dignity; neuter, now focked to Cato from all parts. His but neither abused his power as Sylla had done, cause was generally called the good cause, while nor retained it so long. During the twelve days Cæsar's adherents were looked upon as enemies of his dictatorship, he governed with great mode- to their country and abettors of tyranny. As ration, and gained the affections both of the soon as Cæsar landed, he marched to Oricum, in people and patricians. He recalled the exiles, Epirus, which was taken without opposition, granted the rights and privileges of Roman citi- The like success attended him at Apollodia, and zens to all the Gauls beyond the Po, and, as these two conquests opened a way to Dyrrhapontifex maximus, filled up the vacancies of the chiuin, where Pompey had his magazines of sacerdotal colleges with his own friends. But arms and provisions. But the fleet which he the chief use he made of his office was to preside had sent back to Brundusium, to transport the at the election of consuls for the next year, when rest of his troops, had been attacked by Bibulus, he got himself and Servilius Isauricus, one of his one of Pompey's admirals, who had taken thirty most zealous partizans, promoted to that dignity, and inhumanly burnt them with the seamen on And now being resolved to follow Pompey, and board. Bibulus, with 110 ships of war, had also carry the war into the east, he set out for Brun- taken possession of all the harbours between dusium, whither he had ordered twelve legions Salonium and Oricum; so that the legions at to repair. But on his arrival he found only five. Brundusium could not venture to cross the sea The rest being afraid of the dangers of the sea, without great danger of falling into the enemy's and unwilling to engage in a new war, had hands. By this news Cæsar was so much emmarched leisurely, complaining of their general barrassed that he made proposals of accommofor allowing them no respite, but hurrying them dation upon very moderate terms, viz., that both continually from one country to another. How- Pompey and he should disband their armies ever Cæsar did not wait for them, but sét sail within three days, renew their former friendship, with only five legions and 600 horse in the and return together to Italy. These proposals beginning of January. While the rest were were sent by Verbullius Rufus, an intimate waiting at Brundusium for ships to transport friend of Pompey, whom Cæsar had twice taken them over into Epirus, Cæsar arrived safe with prisoner. Pompey, however, answered that he his five legions in Chaonia, the north part of would not hearken to any terms, lest it should Epirus, near the Ceraunian mountains. There be said that he owed his life and return to Italy he landed his troops, and sent the ships back to to Cæsar's favor. Cæsar again sent one Vatinius Brundusium to bring over the legions left benind. to confer with Pompey about a treaty of peace.
Labienus received the proposals ; but, while they them could not stop them. The ensign who were conferring together, a party of Pompey's carried the eagle at the head of the routed legion men discharged their darts at Vatinius and his was mortally wounded; but before he died conattendants. Some of the guards were wounded, signed the eagle to the cavalry, desiring them to and Vatinius narrowly escaped with his life. In deliver it to Cæsar. Pompey's men pursued the the mean time Cæsar advanced towards Dyrrha- fugitives, and made such a slaughter of them chium; but, Pompey unexpectedly appearing, he that all the centurions of the first cohort were halted on the other side of the Apsus, where he cut off except one. ' And now Pompey's army entrenched himself
. Pompey, however, durst broke in like a torrent upon the posts Cæsar had not cross the river in Cæsar's sight; so that the fortified, and were advancing to attack Marcellitwo armies continued for some time quiet in nus, who guarded a neighbouring fort; but Marc their respective camps. Cæsar wrote repeatedly Antony coming very seasonably to his relief with to Marc Antony, who commanded the legions in twelve cohorts they retired. Soon after Cæsar Italy, to come to his assistance; but received no arrived with a strong reinforcement and posted answer. He then sent Posthumius, one of his himself on the shore, whence he observed an old lieutenants, with pressing orders 10 Marc Antony, camp, made within the place where Pompey was Gabinius, and Calenus, to bring the troops to enclosed. Upon his quitting it Pompey had him at all events. Gabinius, unwilling to expose taken possession of it, and left a legion to guard all the hopes of his general to the hazards of the it. This post Cæsar resolved to reduce. Accordsea, marched a great way about by Illyricum. ingly he advanced secretly, at the head of thirtyBut the Illyrians, who had declared for Pompey, three cohorts, in two lines ; and, arriving at the fell unexpectedly upon him and killed him and camp before Pompey could have notice of his all his meni Marc Antony and Calenus went march, attacked it with great vigor, forced the by sea, and were in danger from one of Pompey's first entrenchment, notwithstanding the brave readmirals; but brought their troops safe to shoresistance of Titus Pulcio, and penetrated to the at Nyphæum, near Apollonia. As soon as it was second, whither the legion had retired. But here known that Antony was landed, Pompey marched his right wing, in looking for an entrance into to prevent his joining Cæsar. But Cæsar, hasten- the camp, marched along the outside of a trench ing to the relief of his lieutenant, joined him-be- which Cæsar had formerly carried on from the fore Pompey came up. Then Pompey retired left angle of his camp, about 400 paces, to a to an advantageous post near Dyrrhachium, called neighbouring river. l'his trench they mistook Asparagium, and there encamped. Cæsar, hav- for the rampart of the camp; and, being thus ing thus at length got all his troops together, led away from their left wing, they were soon offered Pompey battle, and kept his army drawn after prevented from rejoining it by the arrival up in sight of the enemy. But, Pompey declin- of Pompey, who came up at the head of a legion ing an engagement, he turned towards Dyrrha- and a large body of horse. Then, that legion chium, as if he designed to surprise it. Pompey, which Cæsar had attacked, taking courage, made following him at some distance, and letting him a brisk sally, drove his men from the first endraw near to the city, encamped on a hill called trenchment which they had seized, and put them Petra, which commanded the sea, and whence in great disorder while they were attempting to he could be supplied with provisions from pass the ditch. Pompey, falling upon them with Greece and Asia, while Cæsar was forced to his cavalry in flank, completed their defeat ; and bring corn by land from Epirus. This put then, flying to the enemy's right wing, which had Cæsar upon a new design, which was to surround passed the trench, and was shut up between that an army far more numerous than his own, and, and the ramparts of the old camp, made a most by shutting them up within a narrow tract of dreadful slaughter of them. This trench was ground, distress them as much for want of forage. filled with dead bodies; many falling into it in Accordingly, he drew a line of circumvallation that disorder, and others passing over them and from the sea quite round Pompey's camp, and pressing them to death. In this distress Cæsar kept him so closely blocked up that, though his did all he could to stop the flight of his legionmen were presently supplied with provisions aries but to no purpose: the standard-bearers from sea, yet the horses of his army died in themselves threw down the Roman eagles when great numbers for want of forage. At length, Cæsar endeavoured to stop them, and left them being reduced to the utmost extremity for want of in the hands of the enemy, who on this occasion forage, Pompey resolved to force the enemy's took thirty-two standards: a disgrace which lines. By the advice, therefore, of two de- Cæsar had never suffered before. He was himserters he embarked his archers, slingers, and self in no small danger of falling by the hand of light armed infantry, and, marching by land at one of his own men, whom he took hold of when the head of sixty cohorts, went to attack that flying, bidding him stand and face about; but part of Cæsar's lines which was next to the sea. the man, apprehensive of the danger he was in, He set out from his camp in the dead of the drew his sword, and would have killed him, had night; and, arriving at the post he designed to not one of his guards prevented the blow by cutforce by day-break, he began the attack by sea off his arm. Cæsar lost on this occasion 960 and land at the same time. The ninth legion, foot, 400 horse, five tribunes, and thirty-two which defended that part of the lines, made a vi- centurions. gorous resistance; but being attacked in the rear This loss and disgrace greatly mortified Cæsar, by Pompey's men, who came by sea, and landed but did not discourage him. After he had, by between Cæsar's two lines, they fled with such his lenity and eloquent speeches, recovered the precipitation that the succors Marcellinus sent spirit of his troops, he decamped, and retired in
good order to Apollonia, where he paid the ple near the place to Nemesis. There were at army and left his sick and wounded. Thence that time two pretenders to the crown of Egypt: he irarched into Macedon, where Scipio Me Ptolemy, the acknowledged king, and the cele tellus, Pompey's father-in-law, was encamped. brated Cleopatra his sister, who, by the inHe met with great difficulties on his march, the cestuous custoin of the country, was also bis countries through which he passed refusing to wife, and, by their father's will, shared jointly in supply his army with provisions. On his enter- the succession. However she aimed at governing ing Thessaly he was met by Domitius, one of alone; but, the Roman senate having confirmed his lieutenants, whom he had sent with three her brother's title, she was banished into Syria legions to reduce Epirus. Having got all his with Arsinoe her younger sister. Cæsar, hosforces together, he marched directly to Gomphi, ever, gave her new hopes of obtaining the kingthe first town of Thessaly, which had been for- dom, and sent both for her and her brother to merly in his interest, but now declared against plead their cause before him. Photinus, the him. Whereupon he attacked it with so much young king's guardian, who had long borne the vigor that though the garrison was very numer most inveterate hatred both to Cæsar and Cleo ous, and the walls were of an uncommon height, patra, disdained this proposal, and hacked his he made himself master of it in a few hours. refusal by sending an army of 20,000 men to Thence he marched to Metropolis, another town besiege him in Alexandria. Cæsar brarely reof Thessaly, which surrendered ; as did all the pulsed the enemy; but, finding the city of too other cities of the country, except Larissa, of great extent to be defended by so small an army which Scipio was master. On the other hand, as 4000 men, he retired to the palace, which Pompey, being continually importuned by the commanded the harbour, to make a stand. senators and officers of his army, left his camp Achilles, who commanded the Egyptians, atat Dyrrhachium, and followed Cæsar, firmly re- tacked him there with vigor, and endeavoured solved not to give him battle, but rather to dis- to make himself master of the fleet before the tress him by straitening his quarters, and cut- palace. On this Cæsar burnt the whole fleet, in ing off his convoys. As he had frequent oppor- spite of every effort to prevent it. He next wok tunities of coming to an engagement, but always the Isle of Pharos, the key to Alexandria, by declined it, his friends and subalterns began to which he was enabled to receive the supplies put ill constructions on his dilatoriness. These, sent him from all sides; and in this situation be with the complaints of his soldiers, made him at determined to withstand the united force of all length resolve to venture a general action. With the Egyptians. In the mean time Cleopatra, this design he marched into a large plain near having heard of the turn in her favor, got herself the cities of Pharsalia and Thebes; which las introduced into his chamber, and her caresses was also called Philippi, from Philip V. of Ma- did not fail to fix him in her interest. While cedon. Pompey pitched his camp on the decli- Cleopatra was thus employed, ber sister Arsione vity of a steep mountain, in a place altogether was engaged in the camp in pursuing a separate inaccessible. He was himself of the opinion that interest. She had, by the assistance of one it was better to destroy the enemy by fatigue and Ganymede, made a large party in the Egyptian want; but his officers forced him to call a coun- army in her favor; and soon after, having caused cil of war, when all to a man were for venturing Achilles to be murdered, Ganymede took the a general action. The event of this battle was command in his stead. Ganymede's principal in the highest degree fortunate for Cæsar; who effort in carrying on the siege was to let in the resolved to pursue his advantage and follow sea upon those canals which supplied the palace Pompey to whatever country he should select. with fresh water; but this inconvenience Cæsar Hearing, therefore, of his being at Amphipolis, remedied by digging a great number of wells. he sent off his troops before him, and then em- His next endeavour was to prevent the junction barked on board a little frigate in order to cross of Cæsar's twenty-fourth legion, which he twice the Hellespont; but in the middle of the strait, attempted in vain. He soon after made himself he fell in with one of Pompey's commanders, at master of a bridge which joined the Isle of Phathe head of ten ships of war. Cæsar, no way ros to the continent, from which post Cæsar reterrified at the superiority of his force, bore up solved to dislodge him. In the heat of action to him and commanded him to submit. The some mariners joined the combatants; but, seized other instantly obeyed, awed by the terror of with a panic, instantly fled, and spread a general Cæsar's name, and surrendered himself and his terror through the army. All Cæsar's endeafleet at discretion.
vours to rally his forces were in vain, the conCæsar continued his voyage to Ephesus, then fusion was past remedy, and numbers were to Rhodes; and, being informed that Pompey drowned or put to the sword in attempting to had been there before him, he made no doubt escape; on which, seeing the irremediable disbut that he was fled to Egypt; wherefore he set order of his troops, he retired to a ship. But sail for that kingdom, and arrived at Alexandria he was no suoner on board than such crowds enwith about 4000 men. Upon his landing he tered at the same time that he was apprehenreceived accounts of Pompey's miserable end, sive of the ship's sinking, and, jumping into the who had been assassinated by order of the trea- sea, swam 200 paces to the fleet before the cherous king; and soon after one of the murderers palace. The Alexandrians, finding their efforts came with his head and ring. But Cæsar turned to take the palace ineffectual, now endeavoured away from it with horror, and soon after ordered to get their king out of Cæsar's power. For this a magnificent tomb to be built to his memory purpose they made use of their customary arts on the spot where he was murdered; and a tem- of dissimulation, professing the utmost desire