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cule in England, upon abolition of the monas- which the tenant holding by knight's service, teries ; such as the parings of St. Edmund's grand serjeantry, or other tenure (for which toes, the girdle of the Virgin Mary, &c. The homage or legal service is due), and being at honoring the relics of saints, on which the church full age at the death of his ancestor, paid unto of Rome afterwards founded the superstitious his entrance. and lucrative use of them, as objects of devo RELIEF, CHURCH OF, or RELIEF, PRESBYTERY votion, as a kind of charms or amulets, prin- OF, a set of Presbyterians, in Scotland, who difcipally appears to have originated in the very fer from the established church only as to the ancient custom of assembling at the cemeteries submission to the law of patronage. See Ador burying-places of the Christain martyrs, for vowson, PATRONAGE, and PRESENTATION. Many the purpose of commemorating them, and of violent settlements, as they are called, of unpoperforming divine worship. The practice of pular clergymen in various parishes in Scotland, depositing relics of saints and martyrs under the had repeatedly taken place, in consequence of altars in churches, was at last thought of such the rigorous exercise of the law of patronage, importance, that St. Ambrose would not conse- which was always a very unpopular measure crate a church because it had no relics; and the among strict Presbyterians ; and some of these council of Constantinople in Trullo ordained, presentees had been so exceedingly unpopular that those altars should be demolished under that they were obliged to be settled in their which there were found no relics. The rage churches and benefices by the force of military for procuring relics for this and similar pur- power. Grievances of this kind had repeatedly poses became so excessive that, in A. D. 300, taken place, and been often complained of, before Theodosius the Great was obliged to pass a law, any attempt was made for relief from them, till forbidding the people to dig up the bodies of the 1752; when the Rev. Mr. Thomas Gillespie, martyrs, and to traffic in their relics. Such was minister of Garnock, in Fifeshire, was deposed the origin of that respect for sacred relics which by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotwas afterwards perverted, and became the occa- land, and for no other fault, but merely, from a sion of innumerable processions, pilgrimages, scruple of conscience, refusing to have any hand &c. In the end of the ninth century, it was not in a violent settlement of this kind, where the sufficient to reverence departed saints, and to presentee was to be settled in opposition to the confide in their intercessions aņd succours, to inclination of the parishioners. This disobebelieve them endued with a power of healing dience to the supreme ecclesiastical court was diseases, working miracles, and delivering from punished with a formal and solemn deposition. all sorts of calamities and dangers; their bones, Mr. Gillespie was soon after joined in commutheir clothes, the apparel and furniture they had nion by Mr. Thomas Boston of Jedburgh, and possessed during their lives, the very ground which several other clergymen of the Church of Scotthey had touched, or in which their carcasses land, particularly the Rev. James Baine, miniswere laid, were treated with veneration, and sup- ter of Paisley, who was settled in a relief church posed to retain the virtue of healing disorders of Edinburgh; all of whom differed from the both of body and mind, and of defending such established church in nothing but the rigorous as possessed them against the assaults and de- exercise of the law of patronage, which the vices of the devil. In consequence of this, a church holds to be lawful and expedient, and new and lucrative trade was opened both in their opponents to be highly criminal. On this Europe and in the east. Public credulity was principle these dissenting clergymen constituted imposed upon, and relics of saints were multi- themselves into a society, with Presbyterian plied without number; while the Greeks found powers, under the name of the Presbytery of Rea rich prey in the superstition of the Latin re- lief; and being soon followed by great numbers of lic-hunters. The Roman Catholics in Great people, who considered patronage as a piece of Britain do not acknowledge any worship to be unjustifiable ecclesiastical, or rather civil tyranny, due to relics, but merely a high veneration and imposed on the church of Scotland by a tory respect, by which means they profess to honor party in the reign of queen Anne, merely to be God, who, they say, has often wrought very ex- avenged of the Presbyterian Whigs for their traordinary miracles by them. Relics are for- zeal against the house of Stuart; they, in a few bidden to be used or brought into England by years, erected churches of Relief (meaning several statutes; and justices of peace are em- thereby relief from the oppression of patronage) powered to search houses for popish relics, in a great number of parishes throughout Scotwhich, when found, are to be defaced and burnt, land. For farther particulars respecting this sect, &c.
we refer the reader to a treatise entitled HistoriREL'ICT, n. s. Old Fr. relicte ; Lat. relicta. cal Sketches of the Church, published in 1774, A widow; a wife desolate by the death of her by the Rev. James Smith, who succeeded Mr. husband.
Gillespie in the Relief Church at Dunfermline, If the fathers and husbands were of the household but who afterwards returned to the established of faith, then certainly their relicts and children can- church, and died minister of a chapel in connot be strangers in this household.
nexion with the establishment in Dundee. Sprat's Sermons.
RELIEVE', v. a. Fr. relief, reliever ; Span. Chaste relict !
RELIEV'ABLE, adj. relievar ; Ital. relievo; Lat. Honoured on earth, and worthy of the love
RELIEF', n. s. relevo. To raise up; reOf such a spouse as now resides above. Garth.
RELIEV'ER, n. s. vive; support; succor ; RELIEF (Relevamen; in Domesday, Relevatio,
ease; free from pain, or Relevium), signifies a certain sum of money, painful duty; hence change a military guard; to
right legally; recommend or set off by interpo- pieces of buildings; and particularly in the hissition: the adjective and noun substantives cor- tories, festoons, foliages, and other ornaments of Tesponding: relievo is (from the Italian) the friezes. Demi relievo is when one half of the prominence of a figure or picture.
figure rises from the plane. When, in a bassoFor this relief, much thanks ; 'tis bitter cold, relievo, there are parts that stand clear out, deAnd I am sick at heart. Shakspeare. Hamlet. tached from the rest, the work is called a demiHonest soldier, who hath relieved you?
In architecture, the relievo of the - Bernardo has my place. Give you good night. ornaments ought always to be proportioned to
the magnitude of the building it adorns, and to Thoughts in my unquiet breast are risen,
the distance at which it is to be viewed. Tending to some relief of our extremes. Milton. Neither can they, as to reparation, hold plea of
Relievo, or Relief, in painting, is the dethings, wherein the party is relievable by common
gree of boldness with which the figures seem, at law.
a due distance, to stand out from the ground of Parallels, or like relations, alternately relieve each the painting. The relievo depends much upon other; when neither will pass asunder, yet are they the depth of the shadow, and the strength of the plausible together.
Browne. light; or on the height of the different colors, He found his designed present would be a relief, bordering upon one another; and particularly and then he thought
it an impertinence to consider on the difference of the color of the figure from what it could be called besides.
that of the ground; thus, when the light is so So should we make our death a glad relief
disposed as to make the nearest part of the From future shame. Dryden's Knight's Tale.
A convex mirrour makes the objects in the middle figure advance, and is well diffused on the come out from the superficies: the painter must do masses, yet insensibly diminishing, and terminso in respect of the lights and shadows of his figures, ating in a large spacious shadow, brought off to give them more relievo and more strength.
insensibly, the relievo is said to be bold, and Dryden.
the clair obscure well understood. From thy growing store
RELIGHT, v. a. Re and light. To light Now lend assistance, and relieve the poor;
anew. A pittance of thy land will set him free.
Id. His power can heal me, and relight my eye. Pope. Relieve the sentries that have watched all night.
RELIGʻION, n. s. Fr. religion; Lat. Id.
RELIGʻlous, adj. & n. s. religio. See below. As the great lamp of day,
S Virtue, as founded Through different regions does his course pursue, And leaves one world but to revive a new;
upon piety and the expectation of future rewards While, by a pleasing change, the queen of night and punishments; a system of revealed faith and Relieves his lustre with a milder light. Stepney. worship : religionist, a bigot; a. religious per
The figures of many ancient coins rise up in a son : the adjective and adverb corresponding in unuch more beautiful relief than those on the modern; sense with religion: religious is also used for the face sinking by degrees in the several declensions exact; strict: and,' as a noun substantive, for a of the empire, till about Constantine's time, it lies
man professedly devoted to religion. almost even with the surface of the medal.
It is a matter of sound consequence, that all Since the inculcating precept upon precept will duties are by so much the better performed, by how prove tiresome, the poet must not encumber his much the men are more religious, from whose abi
Hooker. poem with too much business ; but sometimes relieve lities the same proceed. the subject with a moral reflection.
Id. When holy and devout religious christians He is the protector of his weakness, and the re Are at their beads, 'tis hard to draw them from liever of his wants.
thence; Not with such majesty, such bold relief,
So sweet is zealous contemplation ! Shakspeare. The forms august of kings, or conquering chief, These are their brethren whom you Goths behold E'er swelled on marble, as in verse have shined, Alive and dead, and for their brethren slain In polished verse, the manners, and the mind. Religiously they ask a sacrifice.
Pope. The privileges, justly due to the members of the
two houses and their attendants, are religiously to be To RELIEVE THE SENTRIES is to put fresh
Bacon. men upon that duty from the guard, which is
For, who will have his work his wished end to generally done every two hours, by a corporal
win, who attends the relief; to see that the proper Let him with hearty prayer religiously begin, orders are delivered to the soldier who relieves.
Drayton. To RELIEVE THE TRENCHES is to relieve the He that is void of fear, may soon be just, guard of the trenches, by appointing those for And no religion binds men to be traitors. that duty who have been there before.
Ben Jonson. Relievo, or Relief, in sculpture, &c., is the
He God doth late and early pray, projecture of a figure from the ground or plane
More of his grace than gifts to lend ; on which it is formed; whether that figure be
And entertains the harmless day
With a religious book or friend. Wotton. cut with the chisel, moulded, or cast. There are three kinds or degrees of relievo, viz. alto,
Certain fryars and religious men were moved with basso, and demi-relievo. The alto relievo, called
some zeal, to draw the people to the christian faith.
Abbot, also haut-relief, or high relievo, is when the
Equity in law is the same that spirit is in religion, figure is formed after nature, and projects as what every one pleases to make it : sometimes they much as the life. Basso relievo, bass-relief, or go according to conscience, sometimes according to low relievo, is when the work is raised a little law, sometimes according to the rule of court. from the ground, as in medals, and the frontis
By religim, I mean that general habit of reve- guished from the inferior creation, and more rence towards the divine nature, whereby we are highly exalted above them, by being made capaenabled and inclined to worship and serve God af: ble of religious notions and sentiments. The ter such a manner as we conceive most agreeable to slightest knowledge of history is sufficient to inhis will, so as to procure his favour and blessing.
form us that religion has ever had a powerful
influence in moulding the sentiments and man
ners of men. It has sometimes dignified, and Of justice, of religion, truth, and peace And judgment from above.
sometimes degraded, the human character. In Their lives
one region or age it has been favorable to civiReligious titled them the sons of God. Id. lisation and refinement; in another it has occaThe christian religion, rightly understood, is the sionally cramped the genius, depraved the deepest and choicest piece of philosophy that is. minds, and deformed the morals of men. The
More. varieties of religion in this general view of the If we consider it as directed against God, it is a term are almost innumerable; and the members breach of religion ; if as to men, it is an cffence of every distinct sect must view all who differ against morality.
from them as more or less mistaken with reFrance has vast numbers of ecclesiasticks, secular spect 10 the most important concerns of man : and religious.
What the protestants would call a fanatick" is in wherever, however, human society consists, we the Roman church a religious of such an order ; as an
are certain of finding religious opinions and English merchant in Lisbon, after some great disap- sentiments. The great variety of religions that pointments in the world, resolved to turn capuchin.
have been established among mankind may be Addison.
reduced to four classes, viz. the Jewish, the By her informed, we best religion learn,
Christian, the Pagan, and the Mahometan. Its glorious object by her aid discern. Bluckmore. The first two claim our attention as the great
The lawfulness of taking oaths may be revealed to divisions of Revealed Theology. See THEOLOGY. the quakers, who then will stand upon as good a foot The last two are treated of in this work under the for preferment as any other subject; under such a articles PolYTHEISM and MAHONETANISM. motley administration, what pullings and hawlings, RELIN'QUISH, v.a. ? Lat. relinquo. To what a zeal and bias there will be in each religionist
RELIN'QUISHMENT, n. s. I forsake; abandon ; to advance his own tribe, and depress the others.
leave; desert : the noun substantive correspond
Swift. Religion or virtue, in a large sense, includes duty ing: to God and our neighbour; but, in a proper sense,
Gover oment or ceremonies, or whatsoever it be virtue signifies duty towards men, and religion duty
which is popish, away with it: this is the thing they to God.
Hooker.. Her family has the same regulation as a religious popish, house, and all its orders tend to the support of a
The English colonies grew poor and weak, though constant regular devotion.
the English lords grew rich and mighty ; for they But I am staggered when I consider that a case placed Irish tenants upon the lands relinquished by may happen in which the established religion may
Daries. be the religion of a minority of the people, that mi
The habitation there was utterly relinquished.
Abbot. nority, at the same time, possessing a majority of the property, out of which the ministers of the establish
The ground of God's sole property in any thing ment are to be paid.
is, the return of it made by man to God; by which
act he relinquishes and delivers back to God all his Religion. Religion is, according to Cicero, right to the use of that thing, which before had been derived from relegere, to reconsider; but ac- freely granted him by God. South's Sermons. cording to Servius, and most modern gramma
That natural tenderness of conscience which rians, from religare, to bind fast. The reason
must first create in the soul a sense of sin, and from assigned by the Roman orator for deducing the thence produce a sorrow for it, and at length cause term from relego is given in these words, 'qui au
a relinquishment of it, is took away by a customary
South. tem omnia, quæ ad cultum deorum pertinerent, di. repeated course of sinning. ligenter retractarent, et tanquam relegerent, sunt
REL'ISH, n. s., 0. Q., &? Fr. relecher, to lick dicti religiosi ex relegendo. The reason given
Rel'ISHABLE. [v. n. S again. Minsheu and by Servius for his derivation of the word is Skinner. Taste; the effect of any thing on the
quod mentem religio religet.' If Cicero's palate; used particularly of a pleasing taste ; etymology be the true one, the word religion will liking ; delight; sense : to relish is, to give a denote the diligent study of whatever pertains taste; to taste; have a liking ; have a pleasing to the worship of the gods; but according to the taste or flavor; give pleasure. other derivation, which we prefer, it denotes
The king-becoming graces that obligation which we feel on our minds from As justice, verity, temperance, stableness, the relation in which we stand to some superior Devotion, patience, courage, fortitude; power. Religion is sometimes distinguished
I have no relish of them. Shakspeure. Macbeth. from theology, in that the former chiefly regards
I love the people; a number of practical duties, and the latter a
Though it do well, I do not relish well system of doctrinal truths. But theology, fully
Their loud applause.
Shakspeare. considered, embraces both doctrine and prac- not have relished among my other discredits.
Had I been the finder-out of this secret, it would
Id. tice. Mankind are distinguished from the brutal tribes, and elevated to a higher rank, by the of lions, withont which, their greatest dainties
The ivory feet of tables were carved into the shape rational and moral faculties with which they are would not relish to their palates. endowed; but they are still more widely distin
Hakerill on Providence.
Much pleasure we have lost, while we abstained
Reluctant; but in vain ! a greater power
Id. Paradise Lost.
Boyle. A sav'ry bit that served to relish wine. Dryden. Bear witness, heaven, with what reluctancy
Could we suppose their relishes as different there as Her helpless innocence I doom to die. Dryden. here, yet the manna in heaven suits every palate. Many hard stages of discipline must he pass
Locke. through, before he can subdue the reluctances of his We have such a relish for faction, as to have lost corruption.
Rogers. that of wit.
Addison's Freeholder. How few would be at the pains of acquiring such
Some refuge in the muse's art I found;
A theory which, how much soever it may relish of Bereft of him who taught me how to sing. Tickel. wit and invention, hath no foundation in nature. If therefore you find in yourself a secret disincli
Woodward. nation to any particular action or duty, and the mind He knows how to prize his advantages, and relish begins to cast about for excuses and reasons to justhe honours which he enjoys.
Atterbury. tify the neglect of it,-consider the matter well : go It preserves some relish of old writing.
Pope. to the bottom of that reluctance ; and search out The pleasure of the proprietor, to whom things be. what it is that gives the mind this aversion to it. come familiar, depends, in a great measure, upon
Mason. the relish of the spectator.
RELUME', v. a.) To light anew ; rekinYou are to nourish your spirit with pious readings, RELU'MINE.
S dle. and holy meditations, with watching, fastings, and
Once put out thy light; prayers, that you may taste, and relish, and desire
I know not where is that Promethean heat, . that eternal state which is to begin when this life ends.
That can thy light relumine. Shakspeare. Othello.
Relumine her ancient light, nor kindle new. Pope.
? Re and lie. RELIVE', v.n. Re and live. To revive; to
Reliance, n. s. ) upon with confidence; put live anew. Not used.
trust in; depend upon; with on; the noun-subThe thing on earth, which is of most avail,
stantive corresponding. Any virtue's branch and beauty's bud,
His days and times are past, Reliven not from any good.
Spenser. And my reliance on his fracted dates RELOVE', v. a. Re and love. To love in
Has smit my credit. Shakspeare, Timon.
Thus Solon to Pisistratus replied, return. Not used.
Demanded, on what succour he relied, To own for him so familiar and levelling an af
When with so few he boldly did engage ? fection as love, much more to expect to be reloved by
He said he took his courage from his age. him, were not the least saucy presumption man could
Denham. be guilty of, did not his own commandments make it
Go in thy native innocence! rely a duty.
On what thou hast of virtue ; summon all ! RELUCENT, adj. Lat. relucens. Shining; For God towards thee has done his part, do thine. tmnsparent; pellucid.
Egypt does not on the clouds rely,
Fear relies upon a natural love of ourselves, and is
Such variety of arguments only distract the under-
Locke. RELUCTATE, v. n. resistance; unwilling. Though reason is not to be relied upon as univer
RELUCT'ATION, n. s. ness : reluctant; unwil- sally sufficient to direct us what to do; yet it is ges ling: reluctate, to resist; struggle against. nerally to be relied upan and obeyed, where it tells The king prevailed with the prince, though not us what we are not to do.
South. without some reluctation. Bacon's Henry VII. That pellucid gelatinous substance, which he
Adam's sin, or the curse y pon it, did not deprive pitches upon with so great reliance and positiveness, him of his rule, but left the 'reatures to a rebellion is chiefly of animal constitution. Woodward. or reluctation.
Bacon.. They afforded a sufficient conviction of this truth, We. with studied mixtures, force our relucting an'l a firm reliance on the promises contained in it. appetites, and, with all the spells of epicurism, con
Rogers. jure them up, that we may lay them again.
No prince can ever rely on the fidelity of that man
REMAIN', v. n., v.a.& n. s. 7 Lat. remaneo. What madness moves you, matrons, to destroy
REMAIN’DER, adj. & n. s. j To be left out The last remainders of unhappy Troy ! Dryden, of a larger quantity or number; continue; not
That a father may have some power over his chilto be comprised : to await; be left to: as a noun- dren is easily granted; but that an elder brother has
so over his brethren remains to be proved. Locke. substantive, relic; memento; the body as left
Could bare ingratitude have made any one so by the soul (generally used in the plural): re
diabolical, had not cruelty come in as a second te mainder, refuse left; that which is left; rem
its assistance, and cleared the villain's breast of all nant: in law, the last chance of inheritance.
remainders of humanity!
If he, to whom ten talents were committed, has Bake that which ye will bake to-day; and that which remaineth over lay up until the morning.
squandered away five, he is concerned to make a Exodus xvi. 23.
double improvement of the remainder. Rogers. That that remains shall be buried in death.
If these decoctions be repeated till the water comes
Arbuthnet, Job xxvii. 15.
off clear, the remainder yields no salt. If what you have heard shall remain in you,
I grieve with the old, for so many additional inshall continue in the Son.
1 John ii. 24.
conveniences, more than their small remain of life seemed destined to undergo.
Pope. Such end had the kid; for he would weaned be
But fowls obscene dismembered his remains, Of craft, coloured with simplicity ;
And dogs had torn him.
Id. Odyssey. And such end, pardie, does all them remain That of such falsers friendship shall be fain.
Of six millions raised every year, for the service of Spenser.
the publick, one third is intercepted through the
several subordinations of artful men in office, before Now somewhat sing, whose endless souvenance
the remainder is applied to the proper use. Swift. Among the shepherds may for aye remain. Id. A most miraculous work in this good king,
REMAINDER, in law, an estate limited in Which often since my here remain in England, lands, tenements, or rents, to be enjoyed after I've seen him do.
Shakspeare. Macbeth. the expiration of another particular estate. As His brain
if a man. seised in fee simple grants lands. Is as dry as the remainder bisket
10 A for twenty years, and, after the determinaAfter a voyage.
Id. As You Like It.
tion of the said term, then to B and his heirs for The gods protect you,
ever : here the former is tenant for years, reAnd bless the good remainders of the court !
mainder to the latter in fee. In the first place,
an estate for years is created out of the fee, and The poor remainder of Andronicus. Id.
given to A, and the residue and the remainder A fine is levied to grant a reversion or remainder, of it is given to B. Both their interests are in expectant upon a lease that yieldeth no rent. fact only one estate ; the present term of years,
Bacon. and the remainder afterwards, when added togeIt may well employ the remainder of their lives to ther, being equal only to one estate in fee. perform it to purpose, I mean the work of evangeli. Blackstone. cal obedience.
Hammond. The word remainder is no term of art, nor is it Mahomet's crescent by our feuds encreast, Blasted the learned remainders of the East.
necessary in passing a remainder. Any words
sufficient to show the intent of the party, will Denham.
create a remainder; because such estates take The easier conquest now
their denomination of remainder from the manRemains thee, aided by this host of friends, Back on thy foes more glorious to return, Milton.
ner of their existence after they are limited. See He for the time remained stupidly good.
Fearne on Remainders. Childless thou art, childless remain.
There is this difference between a remainder There are two restraints which God hath put upon and a reversion : in case of a reversion the estate human nature, shame and fear; shame is the weaker, granted, after the limited time, reverts to the and hath place only in those in whom there are some grantor or his heirs; but by a remainder it goes remainders of virtue.
Tillotson. 10 some third person, or a stranger.
REMAINS, ORGANIC. One of the first observa- ponent parts must formerly have been in a state tions which were made after the distinction of of Auidity; and, secondly, that the lower rocks rocky masses, in reference to their component in position must have been the first in formation parts, was the almost invariable order of relative Their division, therefore, into two grand classes, position which the different species maintain with distinguished no less by their relative position respect to each other. Different rocks are seen than by the obvious characters of their composipiled upon one another in mountain ranges ; and, tion, is scientific. A crystalline texture, and the in digging into the depths of the earth, a perpetual absence of extraneous fossils, mark the series and varying succession of strata is discovered. which is lowest in position, and justify the name But no change of place has been found between of primordial ; while the earthy composition of the upper and lower orders of the series. The the higher series, and the different bodies which lines of junction of the different species, and the they envelope, from fragments of the preceding strata into which they are individually divided, class to remains of organised bodies, authorise are parallel to one another. From hence the no less for these the appellation of secondary. conclusion seems striking; first, that their com- Both these divisions of rocks are traversed by