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put the method of simple and careful distillation A rectory or parsonage is a spiritual living, comis equally suited to all. Molasses spirit, cyder posed of land, tithe, and other oblations of the peospirit, wine spirit, or brandy, rum, and arrack, ple, separate or dedicate to God in any congregation are all improved by it; and all of them are then for the service of his church there, and for the mainknown to be perfectly rectified, when, in the tenance of the governor or minister thereof, to

Spelman. state of alcohol, they not only prove totally in- whose charge the same is committed. flammable in a little vessel floating upon cold

God is the supreme rector of the world, and of all those subordinate parts thereof.

Hale. waters, but when poured into the purest spring water they have not the least power of making sen by the corporation or university, the election

When a rector of a university of scholars is choany change in it, nor leave any marks of oiliness, ought to be confirmed by the superior of such unior that unctuosity which, on the mixture of the versity.

Ayliffe's Parergon. less pure spirits, floats on the top, and in certain

Rector is a term applied to several persons lights gives the rainbow colors. See Distilla- whose offices are very different : as, 1. The recFixed salts are rectified by calcination, disso- and cure of a parish, and possesses all the tithes,

tor of a parish is a clergyman that has the charge lution, or filtration.

&c. 2. The same name is also given to the Metals are rectified, i. e. refined, by the chief elective officer in several foreign univercoppel; and reguluses by repeated fusions, &c. sities, particularly in that of Paris, and also in In a word, all rectifications are founded upon those of Scotland. 3. It is also applied to the the same principle; and consist in separating head master of large schools in Scotland, as in substances more volatile from substances less the high school of Edinburgh. 4. Rector is volatile; and the general method of effecting also used in several convents for the superior this is to supply only the degree of heat which is officer who governs the house: and the Jesuits necessary to cause this separation.

gave this name to the superiors of such of their RECTIFIER, in navigation, an instrument houses as are either seminaries or colleges. · 5. consisting of two circles, either laid one upon, The head of Lincoln College, in Oxford, is also of let into the other, and so fastened together in called rector. their centres, that they represent two compasses, one fixed, the other moveable; each of them di- intestines. See Anatomy.

RECTUM, in anatomy, the last of the large vided into the thirty-two points of the com

RECTUS, in anatomy, a name common to pass, and 36°, and numbered both ways, from several pairs of muscles, so called on account of the north and south, ending at the east and west the straightness of their fibres. See Anatomy. in 90°. The fixed compass represents the hori RECUBATION, n.s.

Lat. recubo. The zon, in which the north and all the other points

RECUM'BENCY, act of lying or leanof the compass are fixed and immoveable. The


ing: this both submoveable compass represents the mariner's com- stantives signify, and the adjective corresponds, pass; in which the north and all other points are liable to variation. In the centre of the move

Whereas our translation renders it sitting, it canable compass is fastened a silk thread, long translations express neither position of session or re

not have that illation, for the French and Italian enough to reach the outside of the fixed com


Browne. pass. But, if the instrument be made of wood,

When the mind has been once habituated to this, there is an index instead of the thread. Its use lazy recumbency and satisfaction on the obvious suris to find the variation of the compass, to rectify face of things, it is in danger to rest satisfied there. the course at sea; having the amplitude or azi

Loeke. muth given.

The Roman recumbent, or more properly accumREČTILIN'EAR, adj. Fr. rectitude ; bent, posture in eating was introduced after the first RectiLIN'EOUS,

Latin rectus and
Punick war.

Arbuthnot. RECTITUDE, n. s. linea. Consisting of RECUPERATORES, among the ancient right lines : rectitude is, literally, straightness; Romans, were commissioners appointed to take hence, and more commonly, mental uprightness; cognizance of private matters in dispute between integrity.

the subjects of the state and foreigners, and to There are only three rectilineous and ordinate take care that the former had justice done them. figures, which can serve to this purpose ; and inor- It came at last to be used for commissioners, to dinate or unlike ones must have been not only less whom the prætor referred the determination of elegant, but unequal. This image was oblong and not oval, but termin. any affair between one subject and another.

RECUPERO (Alexander), a learned numisated with two rectilinear and parallel sides and two semicircular ends.


matologist, was born about 1740 at Catanea, of Calm the disorders of thy mind, by reflecting on

a noble family. He travelled, with the name of the wisdom, equity, and absolute rectitude of all his Alexis Motta, through the principal cities of proceedings.

Atterbury. Italy, and employed himself in forming a colRECTOR, n. s.

Fr. recteur ; Lat. rector. lection of the Roman consular medals. The RecʻTORSHIP, Ruler; lord; governor;

examination and classification of these stores enRECTORY. Sparson of an unimpro- gaged him more than thirty years, in the course priated parish: rectorship and rectory are both of which he seems to have obtained an unrivalled used for his office; and the latter for his resi- acquaintance with the family history of the Rodence also.

His death took place at Rome, October, Had your bodies

1803. He wrote Institutio Stemmatica, sive de No heart among you ? or had your tongues no cry

Vera Stemmatum præsertim Romanorum Natura Against the rectorship of judginent ? Shakspeare. atque Differentia ; Annales familiarum Romano


rum; and Annales Gentium Historico-Numis- decimals which have the same effective figures, maticæ, sive de Origine Gentium seu Familiarum though varied in their position. Thus, Romanorum Dissertatio : also treatises on the Roman weights, and manner of numbering. He

•142857142857, &c. was a member of the antiquarian academies of

285714285714, &c. Veletra and Cortona.

•428571428571, &c. RECUPERO (Joseph), brother of the preceding,

571428571428, &c.

*714285714285, &c. was also a learned mineralogist. He embraced the ecclesiastical profession, and obtained a

•857142857142, &c. canonry in the cathedral of Catanea. He dis RECURVIROSTRA, in ornithology, a genus tinguished himself by his researches concerning belonging to the order of grallæ of Linnæus, and Eina, and some details which he communicated to that of palmipedes of Pennant and Latham. The our countryman Brydone, relative to the proba- bill is long, subulated, bent back, sharp, and flexible age of the mountain. See Etna. He pub- ble at the point. The feet are webbed, and furlished an oryctographical chart of Etna; and nished with three toes forwards, and a short one left a work on the same subject in manuscript. behind. Latham notes of this genus three species, Ilis death took place in 1787.

viz. the alba, the Americana, and the avosetta, RECUR', 1. n. Fr. ricourir; Lat. recurro.

or the one commonly known. To come back to the thought; revive in the

1. R. alba, or scolopax alba, is about fourteen mind; have recourse to (from the Fr. word). inches and a quarter long, its color white, the

If to avoid succession in eternal existence, they inferior covers of its wings duskish, its bill recur to the punctum stans of the schools, they will orange, its legs brown. Edwards remarks that thereby very little help us to a more positive idea of the bill of this bird is bent upwards, as in the infinite duration,


avoset; it is black at the tip, and orange the rest In this life the thoughts of God and a future state of its length; all the plumage is white, except a often offer themselves to us ; they often spring up in tint of yellowish on the great quills of the wing our minds, and when expelled, recur again.


and the tail. Edwards supposes that the whiteThe second cause we know, but trouble not our.

ness is produced by the cold climate of Hudson's selves to recur to the first.

Wake. Bay, from which he received it, and that they When any word has been used to signify an idea, resume their brown feathers during the summer. that old idea will recur in the mind when the word It appears that several species of this bird have is heard.

Watts. spread further into America, and have even RECURE', v.a. Re and cure.

To recover

reached the southern provinces : for Sloane from sickness or labor. Not in use.

found this species in Jamaica; and Fernandez Through wise handling and fair governance,

seems to indicate two of them in New Spain, by I him recured to a better will,

the names chiquatototl and elotototl; the former Purged from the drugs of foul intemperance.Spenser. being like our woodcock, and the latter lodging Phæbus pure

under the stalks of maize. In western waves his weary wagon did recure. Id.

2. R, Americana, the American avoset, is rather Whatsoever fell into the enemies' hands, was lost larger and longer than the avoset. The bill is without recure : the old men were slain, the young similar, and its color black : the forehead is men led away into captivity.


dusky white : the head, neck, and upper part of Thy death's wound Which he who comes thy Saviour shall recure,

the breast, are of a deep cream color: the lower Not by destroying Satan, but his works

parts of the neck behind white: the back is In thee and in thy seed. Milton's Paradise Lost.

black, and the under parts from the breast pure RECUR'RENT, adj.) Fr. recurrent ; Lat.

white: the wings are partly black, partly white, RECURʼRENCE, n. s.

These birds inbabit recurrens. Returning North America, and were found by Dainpier on

and partly ash-colored. Recur'RENCY, from time to time:

the coast of New Holland. Recur’sion. return; this last is the

3. K. avosetta is about the size of a lapwing sense of all the noun substantives. Next to lingering durable pains, short intermittent of the bill is soft, and almost membranous at its

in body, but has very long legs.. The substance or swift recurrent pains precipitate patients unto consumptions.


tip: it is thin, weak, slender, compressed horiAlthough the opinion at present be well sup- zontally, and incapable of defence or effort. pressed, yet, from some strings of tradition and fruit. These birds are variegated with black and ful recurrence of error, it may revive in the next ge- white, and during the winter are frequent on the neration.

Browne's l'ulgar Errours. eastern shores of Great Britain. They visit also One of tne assistants told the recursions of the the Severn, and sometimes the pools of Shropother pendulum hanging in the free air. Boyle.

shire. They feed on worms and insects, which RECURRENTS, in anatomy, a name given to they scoop out of the sand with their bills. They several large branches of nerves sent out by the lay two eggs, white, with a greenish hue, and par vagum from the upper part of the thorax to large spots of black: these eggs are about the the larynx. See ANATOMY.

size of a pigeon's. They are found also in Recurring DECIMALS'are those which repeat various parts of the continent of Europe, in in the same order, at certain intervals. Thus, Russia, Denmark, and Sweden, but they are not the fraction j is expressed by the recurring deci numerous. They are also found in Siberia, but mal 66666, &c.

oftener about the salt lakes of the Tartarian It is curious that all fractions whose denomi- desert, and about the Caspian Sea. They do not nator is 7 are expressed by compound recurring appear to wander farther south in Europe than

Italy. Whether from timidity or address, the The glowing redness of the berries vies with the avoset shuns snares, and is not easily taken. verdure of their leaves. .

Spectator. RECURʼVOUS, adj. Lat. recurvus. Bent Turn upon the ladies in the pit, RECUR'VATION, or backward : the noun

And, if they redden, you are sure 'tis wit.

Addison. Recur'vity, n. s. substantive corres

The sixth red was at first of a very fair and lively ponding.

scarlet, and soon after of a brighter colour, being Ascending first into a capsulary reception of the very pure and brisk, and the best of all the reds. breast bone by a serpentine recurvation, it ascendeth

Newton's Optics. again into the neck.


Is not fire a body heated so hot as to emit light I have not observed tails in all; but in others I copiously? for what else is a redhot irou than fire ? have observed long recurvous tails, longer than their and what else is a burning coal than redhot wood ? bodies. Derham.

Id. RECUSANTS, in law, are such persons, For me the balm shall bleed, and amber blow, whether papists or other, who refuse to go to The coral redden, and the ruby glow. Pope. church and to worship God after the manner The redhot metal hisses in the lake.

Id. prescribed by the Church of England. Popish

Why heavenly truth, recusants are papists who so refuse; and a popish und moderation fair, were the red marks recusant convict is a Catholic convicted of such Of superstition's scourge.

Thomson's Winter. offence. See Roman CATHOLICISM.

The redbreast, sacred to the household gods,

Thomson. RECUSE, v. n. Fr. recuser; Lat. recuso.

Pays to trusted man his annual visit. To refuse. A juridical word.

And, instant, lo, his dizzy eye-ball swims

Ghastly, and reddening darts a threatful glare : All that are recusants of holy rites. Holyday. Pain with strong grasp distorts his writhing limbs,

The humility, as well of understanding as man And Fear's cold hand erects his bristling hair ! ners of the fathers, will not let them be troubled

Beattie. when they are recused as judges.

Digby. They demand of the lords, that no recusant lord

Red is one of the colors called simple or primight have a vote in passing that act. Clarendon. mary: being one of the shades into which the

A judge may proceed notwithstanding my ap- light naturally divides itself, when refracted peal, unless I recuse him as a suspected judge. through a prism.


Saxon red; Welsh

Red Lake, a lake of North America, a compaRED'BREAST, n. s. rhud; Dan. rad; Belg. ratively small lake for this neighbourhood, but at RED'COAT,

rood; Goth.riod; from the head of a branch of the Bourbon or Red RED'DEN, v. a. & v.n. the Greek epugpos. Of River. Its form is nearly circular, about sixty Reb'disu, adj.

the color of blood: miles in circumference. On one side is a toleRed'DISHNESS, n. s.

one of the primitive rably large island. It is almost south-east from Red'hot, adj. colors, which is sub- Lake Winnipeg, and south-west of the Lake of divided into many; as scarlet, vermilion, crim- the Woods. Long. 95° 10' W., lat. 47° 40' N. son : the redbreast is a bird named from its Red River, or Natchitoches, a large river color: redcoat, a contemptuous name for a sol- of Louisiana, North America, which derives its dier : to‘redden is to make or grow red : reddish, name from the rich fat earth or marl of that somewhat red: the noun substantive correspond- color, borne down by its floods. It rises about ing : red-hot is heated to redness.

long. 105° W., lat. 35° li., and flows into the His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white Mississipi, 240 miles above New Orleans, in with milk.

Genesis xlix. 12. Long. 91° 48'W., lat. 31° 15 N. The navigation A bright spot, white and somewhat reddish. of the Red River is interrupted at a place called

Leviticus. Rapide, 135 miles from its mouth, by a ledge of Look I so pale ?

soft rock of the consistence of pipe-clay, which -Ay, and no man in the presence,

extends across the river, but might be easily reBut his red colour hath forsook his cheeks.

moved. No difficulty, however, is experienced Shakspeare.

except in low water. About 500 miles from its Bring me the fairest creature northward born,

mouth the voyager meets with a more serious To prove whose blood is reddest.

Id. There was a pretty redness in his lips. Id.

obstacle, namely, the natural bridges or rafts Iron redhot burneth and consumeth not. Васот. ,

formed by the accumulation of drift wood, under The angelick squadron turned fiery red. Milton.

which the current of this great river passes for In the Red Sea most apprehend a material redness

, several miles. They have remained unbroken from whence they derive its common denomination. for so long a period that they have acquired a

Browne. soil and a growtn of timber similar to the surTwo parts of copper and one of tin, by fusion rounding country. brought into one mass, the whiteness of the tin is

The Red Sea (Sinus Arabicus), is a gulf of more conspicuous than the reddishness of the copper. the Sea of Arabia, 500 leagues in length and


seventy-five in its greatest breadth. It is entered ne fearful passenger, who travels late,

from the gulf of Socotra by a channel, ten Shakes at the moonshine shadow of a rush,

leagues wide, in which is the litile island of And sees a redcoat rise from every bush. Dryden. In a heaven serene, refulgent arms appear

Perim, or Mehun, three miles and a half distant Reddening the skies, and glittering all around,

from the Arabian shore, the channel between The tempered metals crash. Id. Æneid. being the proper strait of Babelmandeb, or the With shame they reddened, and with spight grew Gate of Tears, alluding to its difficult navigation, pale.

Id. Juvenal. and which is the most used, as it is without

danger, and has good anchorage, while the broa) the levels of the two seas to be the same, as there passage between the coast of Africa and Perim is no tide in the Mediterranean, and a very has too great a depth of water, and, the current strong one in the Red Sea, this would alone usually setting strong into the Bay of Zeila, it is cause a great body of water to flow from the dangerous to be caught here in a calm.

latter into the former, if the isthmus was broken. The denomination of Red, given to this sea, The tides in the Red Sea are considerable is differently accounted for. Buffon accords from its entrance facing the east, and there being with the idea that it received it from the color of no rivers to counteract the stream. The winds the coral with which it abounds; but this sub- considerably affect these tides ; and it is not anstance is in general whitish. Others derive it common, in strong north westers, for the bottom from Edom or Idumea, the ancient names of to be left entirely dry on the ebb, between Suez Upper Egypt washed by the sea, which, signify- and the opposite shore. The monsoons, which ing red, they suppose to have been given it from are strong and regular in the open sea of Arabia, the reddish color of the shore. The modern are subject to variations in approaching the land. Arabian name is Bahr Suph, Sea of Algæ, from In the gulf of Socotra their direction is usually the quantity of these plants that cover the rocks. from the east between October and May, and

of the sea of Arabia called by the ancients from the west the other six months ; while, Mare Erythræum, Quintus Curtius, after ob- within the Red Sea, they blow directly up and serving that the Ganges empties itself into it, down, but with this variation, that the south-east adds, • Mare certe quo (India) aluitur ne coloré winds blow without intermission in the lower quidem abhorret a ceteris. Ab Erythra rege in- part of the sea, from October to June, when the ditum est nomen : propter quod ignari rubere northerly winds begin and continue for four aquas credunt.' Lib. viii. chap. 9. "The sea months. Towards the head of the sea, in the washing India varies not from other seas. It de- gulf of Suez, northerly winds, on the contrary, rived its name from king Erythros ; on which prevail for nine months, and blow with great aocount the ignorant believe the water to be red.' violence. The causes of these variations are eviPratt's translation. The weed named suph by dently the positions of the sea of Arabia and the the Hebrews is of a red hue between scarlet Mediterranean, with respect to the Red Sea. and crimson ; it abounds in the gulf of Suez. Thus the monsoon, which is from the east in the And it is remarkable that the name by which gulf of Socotra, changes to the south-east and the Arabian Gulf at large is designated through- S. S. E. in the Red Sea, from this sea lying in a out the Old Testament is that preserved in the direction south-east and north-west; and is of Arab. Bater Souf. By the septuagint the origi- longer continuance, from the atmosphere of the nal word is rendered Oaklasa Lip, the Sea of sea of Arabia being for a great part of the year Zeph; EpvOpa Jalaojav, the Erythrean Sea, and colder than that of the Red Sea. For a similar εσχατην θαλασσαν, the further sea.

reason north-west wints are of longest duration At its head the Red Sea forms two gulfs: the at the head of the sea; for the denser air of the western is named the Gulf of Suez, the Heroo- Mediterranean is almost constantly flowing to polites sinus of the ancients, and the Bahr-el- wards the more rarified atmosphere of the desert Kolzum, or Bahr-el Suez, of the Arabs. The eastern of Suez and Red Sea, and this cause is strongest gulf of Akaba is the ancient Ælanites sinus, and in the months of June, July, and August, when the Bahr-el-Ailah of the Arabs. The tract which the presence of the sun has most raised the temseparates these gulfs is named the Desert of perature of these latter; hence north-west winds Sinai, into which Moses led the children of blow with great violence towards the head of the Israel.

sea during these months. Though these monsoon It seems certain that the Red Sea formerly winds prevail with great regularity in the middle extended several miles farther to the north than of the sea, close to the shores, there are, throughit does at present; it now heads about four miles out the year, land and sea breezes ; but they above Suez, and beyond this, running ten miles cannot be taken advantage of in navigating this to the north, .is a depressed tract, the level of sea, by reason of the reefs which line the shores, which is thirty-five feet below that of the sea, obliging ships to keep at too great a distance and which is only kept from being overflowed during the night to profit by the land wind. The by an elevated ridge of sand. The soil of this currents mostly run with the wind. sunk basin is sea sand and shells ; and it has We have no knowledge of a single stream of several shallow ponds of salt water. The desic- fresh water reaching the Red Sea. The river cation of this basin is accounted for by supposing Farat, laid down in the charts on the African the waves to have accumulated a bar of sand, coast, nearly opposite Judda, is probably only a which, at length, rising above the level of the sea, creek. The Arabian coast is lined by a chain of a lake was formed, the waters of which have mountains throughout its whole extent, whose been carried off by evaporation. It is generally base is from ten to thirty leagues from the sea; thought also that the Red Sea is thirty-four the intermediate space being an arid sea sand, feet mere elevated than the Mediterranean ; totally deprived of fresh water, and naturally hence it would follow, that if the Isthmus of producing only a few herbaceous plants, such as Suez was cut through, the waters of the Red Sea the mesembryanthem, euphorbia, stapelia, colowould rush with rapidity into the Mediterranean, quintia, &c. This barren waste, however, abounds while those of the Atlantic running in through with antelopes and other game; and immedithe Strait of Gibraltar, an accumulation and ately beyond it the scene suddenly changes to concussion would take place, the consequences an exuberant vegetation, and a profusion of of which are incalculable. And even supposing spring water.

The climate of the Red Sea differs essentially harbour was deserted, and Suez, which was not at its extremities. At Mocha, with the excep- in existence towards the end of the fifteenth cention of a few light showers about Christmas, rain tury, rose on its ruins. Niebuhr crossed the

is unknown; and the thermometer, in July and creek ať low water on his camel, near the, sup• August, rises to 112° during the day, and never posed ruins of Kolsoum, and the Arabs, who

descends below 90° at night. The dews arc, attended him on foot, were only up to their knees; throughout the year, extremely heavy.

but no caravan, he says, could pass here without The African coast of the Red Sea is divided great inconvenience, and certainly not dry-foot. into Abyssinia, Baza, and Upper Egypt. The Nor could the Israelites, he remarks, have coast of Abyssinia, being generally avoided by availed themselves of any coral rocks, as they ships navigating in this sea, was very imper- are so sharp that they would have cut their fectly known until the visit of lord Valentia in feet. Moreover, if we suppose that the agency 1804. It is now found to possess several good of the tides was employed by divine providence ports, but also to be of dangerous approach in in favoring the passage of the Israelites, the east several places from reefs and islands. From wind which, blowing all night, divided the waters Ras Firmah, the north point of Asab Bay, on of the gulf in the middle, preserving a body of which is the negro town of Asab (Saba), to Ras water above and below, and laying bare the Rattah or the Sister Hills, there are several cur- channel between the walls,-was clearly supervatures and good anchorage.

natural. The wind here constantly blows six Suez is a modern and a poor place, being months north and six months south. And, as this ruined by the cessation of commerce during the unprecedented ebb of the waters must have been occupation of Egypt by the French. It is preternatural, not less so was the sudden temsituated on an inlet filled with banks, which dry pestuous reflux by which the Egyptians were at half tide, and crossed by a bar two miles and overwhelmed. Perhaps a thick fog, it is suga half below the town, with but ten or eleven gested, might hasten their destruction. The feet high water: inside the depths between the depth at high water now does not exceed from banks are eight and nine feet at low, and fifteen eight to ten feet, but the same causes which have to sixteen feet high water springs. This forms a enlarged the land on the eastern shore, have renkind of inner harbour, in which the country dered the gulf shallower. The winds, blowing vessels lay when they require careening, which is the sands of Arabia into the Red Sea, are condone in a cove or basin at the back of the town. stantly forming shallows among the rocks, and The water used by the inhabitants and shipping threaten in time to fill up the gulf. Dr. Shaw, is brought on camels from wells to the east of however, displays his usual learning and ingethe town at a considerable distance. The ruins nuity in fixing the passage of the Israelites opof Clysma are visible in a mount of rubbish posite the desert of Shur. Supposing Rameses south of Suez, now called Kolzum. In 1817 a to have been Cairo, there are two roads, he resmall fleet of English ships arrived here direct marks, by which the Israelites might have been from Bombay, in consequence of the desire of conducted to Pihahhiroth on the coast; the one the pacha of Egypt to open a direct trade be- through the valleys of Jendily, Rumeleah, and tween India and that country.

Baideah, which are bounded on each side by the The Arabian coast of the Red Sea includes mountains of the Lower Thebais; the other, Yemen or Tehama, and Hejaz. The coast from more to the northward, having these mountains Cape Babelmandeb, at the entrance of the strait, for several leagues on the right, and the desert to Mocha is clean and bold-to; but from this to on the left, till it turns through a remarkable the north it is lined with reefs within, and through breach or ravine in the northernmost range, into which the Arab vessels sail by day only. the valley of Baideah. The latter he presumes

Niebuhr thinks this was the point at which the to have been the road taken by the Israelites. Israelites crossed the Red Sea : it is a passage Succoth, the first station, signifies only a place of twenty-fours to Tor on the opposite side ; but of tents; and Etham, the second station, he conas he observes, and as we have noticed, there can siders as probably on the edge of the mountaibe no doubt the sea formerly extended much far- nous district of the Lower Thebais. Here the ther north.

Israelites were ordered to turn (from their line The natives point out the valley of Bedeah, of march), and encamp before Pihahhiroth, i.e. and other points of the coast further southward, the mouth of the gullet or defile, betwixt Migopposite Ayoun Mousa and the Hammam Fara- dol and the sea. This valley he supposes to be oun. Dr. Shaw objects, against the opinion which identified with that of Baideah, which signifies fixes the passage opposite Ayoun Mousa, that miraculous, and it is also still called Tiah Beni there is not sufficient depth of water there to Israel, the road of the Israelites. Baal-tzephon, drown so many Egyptians,—an objection which over against which they encamped, is supposed to would seem to apply with still greater force to be the mountain still called Jebel Attakkah, the the opinion of Niebuhr and others, who fix mountain of deliverance. Over against Jebel upon Suez as the point at which they crossed. Attakkah, at ten miles distance, is the desert of But the fact is, that the waters have retired, and Sdur, or Shur, where the Israelites landed. This the coral shoals have increased so much in every part of the gulf would, therefore, be capacious part of the gulf that no decisive argument can enough to cover a numerous army, and yet be built on the present shallowness of the water. might be traversed by the Israelites in a night ; In former times, ships entered the harbour of whereas, from Corondel to Tor, the channel is Kolsoum, which stood higher up than Suez, but, ten or twelve leagues broad, which is too great a in consequence of the retrcat of the waters, that distance to have been travelled by a multitude

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