« PreviousContinue »
The hydrate of potash, as obtained by the pre- potash with which they had made their expericeding process, is solid, white, and extremely ments; while in others they had drawn wrong caustic; in minute quantities, changing the pur- inferences from mistaken resemblances. ple of violets and cabbage to a green, reddened As soon as voltaic electricity was so far renlitmus to purple, and yellow turmeric to a red- dered manageable as to be applied with very dish-brown. "It rapidly attracts humidity from great power to chemical analyses, Mr. Davy the air, passing into the oil of tartar per deliquium conceived the idea of enlisting this wonderful of the chemists; a name, however, also given to agency into his service, with a view of endeathe deliquesced subcarbonate. Charcoal applied vouring to obtain a decomposition of the alkato the hydrate of potash at a cherry-red heat lies; and he was the more fully induced to give gives birth to carburetted hydrogen, and an al a full scope and latitude to a series of experiments kaline subcarbonate ; but, at a heat bordering on of this kind from observing that if a neutral whiteness, carburetted hydrogen, carbonous substance, or a compound of an acid and an oxide, and potassium are formed. Several me- alkali, constituted a part of the voltaic circle, a tals decompose the hydrate of potash, by the aid decomposition of such substance was the result, of heat; particularly potassium, sodium, and the acid alone always travelling to the positive iron. The fused hydrate of potash consists of side of the chain and the alkali to the negative. 6 protoxide of potassium + 1.125 water = In the first attempts which Sir H. Davy made 7.125, which number represents the compound for the decomposition of the fixed alkalies, he prime equivalent. It is used in surgery as the entirely failed, in consequence of his having potential cautery for forming eschars; and it was acted upon their aqueous solutions only. He formerly employed in medicine diluted with afterwards used potash in the state of igneous broths as a lithontriptic. In chemistry it is very fusion, and acted upon it by an electrical power, extensively employed, both in manufactures and which was produced from a galvanic battery of as a reagent in analyses. It is the basis of all 100 plates of six inches square, highly charged. the common soft soaps.
Here some brilliant phenomena were produced. Dr. Wollaston has recently ascertained the A most intense light and a column of fiame were existence of potash in sea-water. He estimates exhibited, which seemed to be owing to the devethe proportion of this alkali, which he supposes lopment of combustible matter; and when the to exist in the state of sulphate, at something order was changed, so that the alkali was brought less than oth part of the water, at its average in contact with the negative side of the battery, density. He has also detected traces of potash aeriform globules, which inflamed in the atmosin the water of the lake of Ourmia or Arumea, phere, rose through the potash. Being, however, which is unconnected with the ocean. Thé unable to collect the products of decomposition water of this lake (which is situated on the pro- by this means, he had then recourse to pure vince of Azerbijan in Persia) is said to be saiter potash in its usual state, and depended on electhan that of the sea, so that no fish can live tricity alone for its fusion, as well as its decomin it.
position. Potash, until Sir Humphry Davy's memorable A small piece of pure potash, moistened a discovery of its chemical nature, was considered little by the breath, was placed upon an insulated as a simple body, though strong suspicions were disc of platinum, connected with the negative entertained of its being of a compound nature. side of a battery consisting of 100 plates of six From that philosopher's researches, however, inches and 150 of four inches square, in a state potash appears to consist of a metallic basis, of intense activity, and a platinum wire, comwhich he called potassium, united with oxygen municating with the positive side, was brought in the following proportions :
in contact with the upper surface of the alkali. Potassium
Under these circumstances, a vivid action soon
commenced. The potash began to fuse at both its 17
points of electrisation, and small globules, having
a high metallic lustre and precisely similar in 100
visible characters to quicksilver, appeared, some POTASSIUM, in chemistry, the name given of which burnt with explosion and bright flame. by Sir H. Davy to the metallic base of potash, These globules, which appeared to be metallic, discovered by him in 1807. Till this period were the basis of potash. potash and soda were necessarily regarded as If iron turnings be heated to whiteness in a simple from the impossibility of decomposing curved gun-barrel, and potash be melted and them by any known methods. Yet they were made slowly to come in contact with the turngenerally suspected to be compounds, though no ings, air being excluded, potassium will be chemist was able to detect their elements. By formed, and will collect in the cool part of the many the alkalescent principle was supposed to tube. This method of procuring it was discobe nitrogen, as the acidifiable was oxygen. Mor- vered by M. M. Gay Lussac and Thenard in veau and Desormes published an ingenious set 1808. It may likewise be produced by igniting of experiments, in which they endeavoured to potash with charcoal, as M. Curaudau showed prove that potash was a compound of hydrogen the same year. and lime. Darracq, however, with that accuracy M. Brunner, by acting on calcined tartar in a which has characterised most of his enquiries, bottle of wrought iron, has succeeded in obtainsoon disproved this theory, and evinced that the ing potassium at a comparatively moderate heat. results obtained by Desormes and Morveau were The bottle is spheroidal, about half an inch in owing, in most cases, to the impurity of the thickness, and ble of holding about a pint
of water; a bent gun-barrel of ten or twelve oxygen gas is expelled from it, and there remains inches in length screws into the mouth of the a difficultly fusible substance of a gray color, vibottle. The botile, well luted over with fire-clay, treous fracture, soluble in water without efferveis set in a strong air furnace, so that the tube scence, but with much heat. Aqueous potash is may dip down externally beneath the surface of produced. The above ignited solid is protoxide naphtha contained in a cylindric copper vessel, of potassium, which becomes pure potash by standing in a tub containing ice and water. The combination with the equivalent quantity of watop of the naphtha vessel has a cover fixed on When we produce potassium with ignited it, pierced with a hole to receive the end of the iron-turnings and potash, much hydrogen is disgun-barrel ; and, from the side of the upper part engaged from the water of the hydrate, while the of the vessel, a small tube goes off at right an- iron becomes oxidised from the residuary oxygen. gles to let the air and vapors escape. It is ad- By heating together pure hydrate of potash and vantageous to mix a little ground charcoal with boracic acid, Sir H. Davy obtained from seventhe tartar previously calcined in a covered vessel, teen to eighteen of water from 100 parts of the in the same iron bottle for example. Nearly solid alkali. 300 grains of potassium have been procured by By acting on potassium with a very small this apparatus from twenty-four ounces of crude quantity of water, or by heating potassium with tartar.- Bibliotheque Universelle, xxii. 36. fused potash, the protoxide may also be obtained.
Potassium is possessed of very extraordinary The proportion of oxygen in the protoxide is deproperties. It is lighter than water, its specific termined by the action of potassium upon water. gravity being 0.895 to water 1:0. At common Eight grains of potassium produce from water temperatures it is solid, soft, and easily moulded about nine cubic inches and a half of hydrogen; by the fingers. At 150° Fahrenheit it fuses, and for these the metal must have fixed four and in a heat a little below redness it rises in cubic inches and three quarters of oxygen. But vapor. It is perfectly opaque. When newly as 100 cubic inches of oxygen weigh 33.9 gr. cut, its color is splendent white, like that of sil- 4 will weigh 1.61. Thus, 9:61 gr. of the prover, but it rapidly tarnishes in the air. To pre- toxide will contain eight of metal; and 100 will serve it unchanged, we must enclose it in a contain 83-25 metal + 1675 oxygen. From small phial, with pure naphtha. It conducts these data, the prime of potassium comes out electricity like the common metals. When 4.969; and that of the protoxide 5-969. Sir H. thrown upon water, it acts with great violence, Davy adopts the number 75 for potassium, corand swims upon the surface, burning with a responding to 50 on the oxygen scale. beautiful light of a red color, mixed with violet. When potassium is heated strongly in a small The water becomes a solution of pure potash. quantity of common air, the oxygen of which is When moderately heated in the air, it inflames, not suflicient for its conversion into potash, a burns with a red light, and throws off alkaline substance is formed of a grayish color, which, fumes. Placed in chlorine, it spontaneously when thrown into water, effervesces without burns with great brilliancy.
taking fire. It is doubtful whether it be a mixOn all fluid bodies which contain water, or ture of the proloxide and potassium, or a commuch oxygen or chlorine, it readily acts; and in bination of potassium with a smaller proportion its general powers of chemical combination, says of oxygen than exists in the protoxide. In this its illustrious discoverer, potassium may be com case it would be a suboxide, consisting of 2 pared to the alkahest, or universal solvent, ima- primes of potassium = 10, + gined by the alchemists.
= 11. Potassium combines with oxygen in different When thin pieces of potassium are introduced proportions. When potassium is gently heated into chlorine, the inflammation is very vivid; in common air, or in oxygen, the result of its and, when potassium is made to act on chloride combustion is an orange-colored fusible sub- of sulphur, there is an explosion. The attraction stance. For every grain of the metal consumed, of chlorine for potassium is much stronger than about one cubic inch and seven-tenths of oxygen the attraction of oxygen for the metal. Both of are condensed. To make the experiment accu- the oxides of potassium are immediately decomrately, the metal should be burned in a tray of posed by chlorine, with the formation of a fixed platina covered with a coating of fused muriate chloride, and the extrication of oxygen. of potash.
The combination of potassium and chlorine is The substance procured by the combustion of the substance which has been improperly called potassium at a low temperature, was first ob- muriate of potash, and which in common cases, served in October 1807, by Sir Humphry Davy, is formed by causing liquid muriatic acid to who supposed it to be the protoxide; but M.M. saturate solution of potash, and then evaporating Gay Lussac and Thenard, in 1810, showed that the liquid to dryness and igniting the solid resiit was in reality the deutoxide, or peroxide. duum. The hydrogen of the acid here unites When it is thrown into the water, oxygen is to the oxygen of the alkali, forming water, which Evolved, and a solution of the protoxide results, is exhaled; while the remaining chlorine and constituting common aqueous potash. When it potassium combine. It consists of 5 potassium is fused, and brought in contact with combusti- + 4.5 chlorine. ble bodies, they burn vividly, by the excess of Potassium combines with hydrogen, to form its oxygen. If it be heated in carbonic acid, potassureted hydrogen, a spontaneously inflamoxygen is disengaged, and common subcarbonate mable gas, which comes over occasionally in the of potash is formed.
production of potassium by the gun-barrel expeWhen it is heated very strongly upon į latina, riment. My. Gay Lussac and Thenard describs
also a solid compound of the same two ingre On choicest melons and sweet grapes they dine, dients, which they call a hydruret of potassium. And with potatoes fat their wanton swine. Waller. It is formed by heating the metal a long while Leek to the Welch, to Dutchmen butter's dear, in the gas, at a temperature just under ignition. Oats for their feasts the Scottish shepherds grind,
Of Irish swains potatoe is the chear ; They describe it as a grayish solid, giving out its hydrogen on contact with mercury.
Sweet turnips are the food of Blouzalind; When potassium and sulphur are heated toge- Nor leeks, nor oatmeal, nor potatoe prize.
While she loves turnips butter I'll despise,
Gay. ther, they combine with great energy, with dis
The families of farmers live in filth and nastiness engagement of heat and light even in vacuo. upon buttermilk and potatoes.
Swift. The resulting sulphuret of potassium is of a The red and white potatoes are the most common dark gray color. It acts with great energy on esculent roots now in use, and were originally water, producing sulphureted hydrogen, and brought from Virginia into Europe. Miller. burns brilliantly when heated in the air, becom Potato, in botany. See Solanum. Potaing sulphate of potash. It consists of 2 sulphur toes came originally from North America, where + 5 potassium,' by Sir H. Davy's experiments. they were not reckoned good for food. They Potassium has so strong an attraction for sul- were first introduced into Ireland in 1565, and phur that it rapidly separates it from hydrogen. thence into England by a vessel wrecked on the If the potassium be heated in the sulphureted western coast, at North Meols, in Lancashire, gas, it takes fire and burns with great brilliancy; a place and soil still famous for producing this sulphuret of potassium is formed, and pure hy- vegetable in great perfection. It was forty years drogen is set free.
after their introduction, however, before they Potassium and phosphorus enter into union were much cultivated about London; and then with the evolution of light; but the mutual ac- they were considered as rarities, without any contion is feebler than in the preceding compound. ception of the utility that might arise from bringThe phosphuret of potassium, in its common ing them into common use. At this time they form, is a substance of a dark chocolate color, were distinguished from the Spanish by the but when heated with potassium in great excess name of Virginia potatoes, or battatas, which is it becomes of a deep gray color, with consider- the Indian name of the Spanish sort. At a able lustre. Hence it is probable that phospho- meeting of the Royal Society, March 18th, rus and potassium are capable of combining in 1662-3, a letter was read from Mr. Buckland, a two proportions. The phosphuret of potassium Somerset gentleman, recommending the planting burns with great brilliancy when exposed to of potatoes in all parts of the kingdom to preair, and when thrown into water produces an vent famine. This was referred to a committee; explosion, in consequence of the immediate dis- and, in consequence of their report, Mr. Buckengagement of phosphureted hydrogen. land had the thanks of the society; such mem
Charcoal which has been strongly heated in bers as had lands were entreated to plant them, contact with potassium effervesces in water, and Mr. Evelyn was desired to mention the prorendering it alkaline, though the charcoal may posals at the close of his Sylva. In Sweden, be previously exposed to a temperature at which notwithstanding the indefatigable industry of potassium is volatilised. Hence there is pro- Linnæus, the culture of potatoes was only introbably a compound of the two formed by a feeble duced in 1764, when a royal edict was pubattraction.
lished to encourage their general cultivation. Of all known substances, potassium is that They were known there, however, at an earlier which has the strongest attraction for oxygen; period; for, in the Memoirs of the Royal Acadeand it produces such a condensation of it, that my of Sciences in Sweden, 1747, M. Charles the oxides of potassium are denser than the Skytse proposed to distil brandy from them, in metal itself. Potassium has been skilfully used order to save corn, which in that country is very by Sir H. Davy and MM. Gay Lussac and The- dear. He found that an acre of land set with nard, for detecting the presence of oxygen in potatoes will yield a much greater quantity of bodies. A number of substances, undecom- brandy than when sown with barley. The utility posable by other chemical agents, are readily of potatoes is well known, and this utility has decomposed by this substance.
brought them into general use, and has extended When a globule is placed upon ice, not even them over every part of this kingdom. To prothe solid form of both the substances can pre- mote this utility, and to make their cultivation vent their union; for the metalloid instantly more easy, a variety of experiments and inburns with bright flame, and a deep hole is quiries have been made. See Rural Economy. made in the ice, which is found to contain a so POTCH, v. a. Fr. pocher. To thrust out the lution of potash. When a globule is dropped eyes as with a thumb." To thrust; push. upon moistened turmeric paper, it instantly
Where burns, and moves rapidly upon the paper, as if I thought to crush him in an equal force, in search of moisture, leaving behind it a deep True sword to sword ; I'll potch at him some way, reddish brown trace. So strong is the attraction Or wrath or craft may get him. Shakspeare. of the basis of potash for oxygen, that it disco Potch, v. a. Fr. pocher. To poach; to vers and decomposes the small quantities of boil slightly. Commonly written Poach, which water contained in alcohol and ether, even when they are carefully purified.
In great wounds, it is necessary to observe a spare POTATO, n. s. An American word, battata diet, as panadoes or a potched egg; this much avail. originally. See below An esculent root. ing to prevent inflammation.
POTEMKIN (George, Prince), a descendant The magistrate cannot urge obedience upon such of a Polish family, who entered into the service potent grounds as the minister can urge disobeof Russia, and distinguished himself so much as
South. to be appointed to the chief command by Catha
How the effluvia of a magnet can be so rare and rine II. On the 17th December, 1788, he took subtile, as to pass through a plate of glass without the important fortress of Oczakow from the any resistance or diminution of their force, and yet Turks, and obtained several other victories over
so potent as to turn a magnetick needle through the glass.
Newton's Opticks. them. The empress rewarded his services by loading him with riches and honors : and it is Now drain this goblet potent to digest.
Cyclop, since human flesh has been thy feast,
Pope. said that she intended to have made him sove The chemical preparations are more vigorous and reign of that part of his native country which potent in their effects than the galenical. Baker. she had dismembered, when he died in 1791, With fond delight we feel the potent charm, aged fifty-two.
When Zephyrs cool us, or when sun-beams warm, POTENCY, n. s. Lat. potentia, potens. With fond delight inhale the fragrant flowers, PoʻTENT, adj. Power; efficacy; autho- Taste the sweet fruits which bend the blushing PO'TENTATE, rity : potent is powerful;
bowers, Po’TENTLY. forcible; strong ; effica- Admire the music of the vernal grove,
Darwin. cious : potentate, a possessor of sovereign power :
Or drink the raptures of delirious love.
Thus did the uncircumcised potentates potently follows the senses of potent.
Of earth, debase religion in the sight There is nothing more contagious than some kinds
Of those they ruled, who looking up beheld of harmony; than some nothing more strong and The fair celestial gift despised, enslaved ; polent unto good.
And mimicking the folly of the great,
With prompt docility despised her too. Pollok.
POTENGER (John), an English author, born Fast foe to the plebeians, your voices might at Winchester in 1647. He took the degree of Be curses to yourselves. Shakspeare. Coriolanus. B.A. in Corpus Christi College, Oxford ; and,
l'se can master the devil, or throw him out entering the Temple, was called to the bar. He With wonderous potency. Shakspeare. Hamlet.
is chiefly known by his Life of Agricola, from I do believe,
Tacitus; and his Pastoral Reflection on Death, Induced by potent circumstances, that You are mine enemy.
a poem. He died at Dorchester, in 1733.
Id. Henry VIII.
raldry, a term for a kind of cross, You equal potents, fiery kindled spirits ! Shakspeare. whose ends all terminate like You are potently opposed ; and with a malice
the head of a crutch. It is Of as great size. Shakspeare. Henry VIII.
otherwise called the Jerusalem Kings and mightiest potentates must die.
Shukspeare. By what name shall we call such an one, as ex POTENTIAL, adj. Fr. potenciel; Lat. ceerleth God in potency?
Raleigh. POTENTIAL'ITY, n. s. potentialis. Existing in Metals are hardened by often heating and quench POTEN'TIALLY. Spossibility only: having; for cold worketh most potently upon heat pre- ing effect as distinct from an actual property; cedent.
efficacious : potentiality is possibility: potenmises, they should infer the same conclusion, were it not that the conspiration of interest were too po They should tell us, whether only that be taken tent for the diversity of judgment. Decay of Piety. out of scripture which is actually and particularly These defences are but compliments,
there set down, or else that also which ihe general To dally with confining potentates.
Daniel. principles and rules of scripture potentially contain. When by command
Hooker. Moses once more his potent rod extends
The magnifico is much beloved, Over the sea ; the sea his rod obeys. Milton.
And hath in his effect a voice potential, All obeyed the superior voice
As double as the duke's. Shakspeare. Othello. Of their great potentate ; for great indeed
This potential and imaginary materia prima cannot His name, and high was his degree in heaven. exist without form. Raleigh's History of the World.
Id. Manna represented to every man the taste himself We acknowledge all power derived from him, and did like; but it had in its own potentiality all those depending on his pleasure : we ascribe to him, an tastes and dispositions eminently. Taylor. authority paramount above all earthly potentates. The cautery is either actual or potential. Barrow.
Markham. Verses are the potent charms we use,
Ice doth not only submit unto actual heat, but inHeroic thoughts and virtue to infuse. Waller, dureth not the potential calidity of many waters. Exalting him not only above earthly princes and
Browne. potentates, but above the highest of the celestial hier Blackness is produced upon the blade of a knife archy.
Boyle. that has cut four apples, if the juice, though both Oil of vitriol, though a potently acid menstruum, actually and potentially cold, be not quickly wiped will yet precipitate many bodies mineral, and others off.
Boyle on Colors. dissolved not only in aquafortis, but in spirit of God is an eternal substance and act, without po
Id. tentiality and matter, the principle of motion, the
cause of nature. Each potentate, as weary fear, or strength,
Stilling fleet. Or emulation urged, his neighbour's bounds The true notion of a soul's eternity is this, that
the future moments of its duration can never be all
past and present; but still there will be futurity and CAL. tetraphyllous: cor. quadripartite: there are potentiality of more for ever and ever. Bentley. from thirty to forty stamina. FEMALE CAL. tetra
This duration of human souls is only potentially phyllous: cor. quadripartite: there are two pisinfinite.
tils: the berry is formed of the indurated tube Potential, in grammar, is an epithet applied of the corolla. The species are three: to one of the moods of verbs. The potential is 1. P. hybridum, hybrid agrimony-leaved burthe same in form with the subjunctive, and is, net, rises with upright, taper, closely gathered according to Ruddiman, implied in that mood; stalks, two feet high; pinnated odoriferous leaves for which reason that grammarian rejects it: but of three or four pairs of sawed lobes, terminated others observe that it differs from the subjunctive by an odd one; and the stalks terminated by in this that it always carries with it the signifi- ' long foot-stalks, dividing into smaller, each supcation of power, will, or duty. It is sometimes porting a small roundish spike of flowers. This called the permissive mood, because it often im- species often proves biennial; but, by cutting plies a permission or concession to do a thing. down some of the stalks before they tower, it
Potential CAUTERY, in medicine, denotes will cause it to multiply at bottom, and become the consuming, or reducing to an eschar, any abiding, part of the human body by a caustic alkaline or 2. P: sanguisorba, the common garden burnet, metallic salt, &c., instead of a red-hot iron, has fibry perennial roots, crowned by a large which last is called the actual cautery.
tuft of pinnated leaves, or six or seven pair of POTENTILLA, silver-weed, wild tansey, or sawed lobes, terminated by an odd one; upright cinquefoil, a genus of the pentagynia order, and angular stalks, dividing, and branching a foot icosandria class of plants; natural order thirty- and a half high, terminated by oblong spikes of fifth, senticosæ: cal. decemfid: there are five purplish red Howers. This species grows wild petals: SEEDS roundish, naked, and affixed to a in England, in chalky soils; but has been long small dry receptacle. The species are six : cultivated as a choice sallad herb for winter and 1. P. argentea, silvery upright potentilla, has spring use, it being of a warm nature: the
young upright stalks, branching a foot high; and five- leaves are the useful parts. It is perennial in lobed leaves, having the lobes wedge-shaped, root, and retains its radical leaves all the year; cut on the edges, hoary, and white underneath, but the stalks are annual. and the branches terminated by small yellow 3. P. spinosum, shrubby spinous burnet of flowers.
Crete, has a shrubby stem and branches, rising 2. P. fragaroides, the strawberry-like potentilla, about a yard high, armed with spines; small has a somewhat tuberous root, furnished with pinnated ever-green leaves, of six or seven pairs many long fibres, long trailing shoots, rooting at of lobes, terminated by an odd one, and the the joints; pinnated, mostly three-lobed leaves, branches terminated by small heads of greenish having oval lobes, with the extreme lobe the flowers. All these species flower in June and largest, and clusters of small white flowers. July, succeeded by ripe seeds in autumn. They This species bears a great resemblance to the are naturally perennial; but the two herbaceous small sterile strawberry plants.
ones are abiding in root only; the other in root, 3. P. fruticosa, the shrubby potentilla, common- stem, and branches: the two former are hardy, ly called shrub cinquefoil. This rises with a short and the third requires shelter in winter. The shrubby stem, dividing into a branchy full head, second sort merits culture in every kitchen-gar
three or four feet high; closely garnished with den for winter and spring salads. The third I pinnated leaves of five oblong, narrow, acute sort must be kept always in pots, to have shelter
pointed folioles, pale green above, and whitish in winter. They are all easily propagated, the underneath; and the branches terminated by second sort by seed and by parting the roots. clusters of large, spreading, yellow flowers. The first sort may also be increased by seeds and This is a beautiful deciduous flowering shrub, slips off the root, as for the former sort : and the worthy of a place in every curious collection. It propagation of the third is by slips or cuttings of grows wild in Yorkshire, and other northern the branches in spring and summer, planted in parts of England, &c., but has been long culti- pots, and placed under glasses, giving shade and vated in gardens as an ornamental shrub. water; or it might be forwarded more by plung
These plants flower in June and July; the ing them in a hot-bed. Burnet is of a heating, flowers are composed each of five roundish pe- drying nature, cordial and alexipharmic. tals, and about twenty stamina. They are all POTGUN, n. s. A corruption of popgun. very hardy, and may be employed in the different A gun which makes a small smart noise. compartments of the pleasure ground. Their
An author thus who pants for fame, propagation is very easy. The shrubby poten Begins the world with fear and shame, tilla may be propagated abundantly by suckers, When first in print, you see him dread layers, and cuttings; all of which will readily Each potgun levelled at his head. grow, and make plants in one year, which, after
Swift's Miscellanies. having two or three years growth in the nursery, POTH'ECARY, n. s. A corruption of apowill be fit for any of the shrubbery compart- thecary. Lat. apothecarius. One who comments. The herbaceous kinds may be propagated pounds and sells physic. by parting the roots in autumn or spring, or by
Modern 'pothecaries, taught the art seed in any of those seasons.
By doctors' bills to play the doctor's part, POTERIUM, garden burnet, a genus of the Bold in the practice of mistaken rules, polyandria order, and monæcia class of
Prescribe, apply, and call their masters fools. natural order fifty-fourth, miscellaneæ : MALE