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While the deathless muse
their seal, and the like; or else publicly in the Shall sing the just, shall o'er their head diffuse
common hall, with the usual formalities observed Perfumes with lavish hand, she shall proclaim
in the court of judicature at Rome. They had Thy crimes alone.
besides, by virtue of their edicts, the power of Then view him self-proclaimed in a gazette
ordering all things relating to the tribunes, taxes, Chief monster that has plagued the nations yet :
contributions, and provisions of corn and money, The globe and seeptre in such hands misplaced,
&c. Their office lasted only a year.
See CogThose ensigns of dominion how disgraced!
Couper.. Proclamations are a branch of the king's born in Cæsarea, who acquired great reputation
PROCOPIUS, a celebrated Greek historian, prerogative (see PREROGATIVE); and have then a binding force, when,' as Sir Edward Coke by his works in the reign of Justinian, and was observes, they are grounded upon and enforce secretary to Belisarius during all the wars carried the laws of the realm. For, though the making He at length became senator, obtained the title
on by that general, in Persia, Africa, and Italy. of laws is entirely the work of a distinct part, the of illustrious, and was made prætor of Constanlegislative branch of the sovereign power, yet the
tinople. manner, time, and circumstances of putting those laws into execution, must frequently be left to
PROCRAS’TINATE, v. a. & v.n.?
PROCRASTINA'TION, n. s. the discretion of the executive magistrate. And
s procrastitherefore his constitutions or edicts, concerning
nor. To defer; delay; be dilatory: the noun
substantive corresponds. those points which we call proclamations, are binding upon the subject, where they do not Hopeless and helpless doth Ægeon wind, either contradict the old laws, or tend to establish
But to procrastinate his lifeless end. Shakspeare. new ones, but only enforce the execution of such voice within them, and they will certainly need no
Let men seriously and attentively listen to that laws as are already in being, in such manner as
other medium to convince them, either of the error the king shall judge necessary.'
or danger of thus procrastinating their repentance. PROCLES, a king of Sparta, the son of Aris
Decuy of Piety. todemus and Argia, and the twin brother of Eu
How desperate the hazard of such procrastination rysthenes, who reigned jointly with him, and is, hath been convincingly demonstrated by better gave rise to the two royal families of Proclidæ pens.
Id. and Eurysthenidæ, who governed Sparta for se Set out early and resolutely without procrastinating veral centuries, exhibiting the singular political or looking back.
Hammond. phenomena of a binarchy, or two hereditary
I procrastinate more than I did twenty years ago, kings governing with equal, but limited power.
and have several things to finish, which I put off to
Swift to Pope. Procles, the son of Eucrates, a Carthaginian twenty years hence.
Procrastination is the thief of time, historian, who wrote some historical treatises, which are lost, except a few fragments preserved
Year after year it steals, till all are fled,
And to the mercies of a moment leaves in the works of Pausanias.-Paus. iv. c. 35.
The vast concerns of an eternal scene. Young. PROCLIVITY, n. s. Lat. proclivitas, pro PRO'CREATE, 0. a. clivis. Tendency: natural inclination ; propen
Fr. procreer; Lat.
PRO'CREANT, adj. sion.
procreo, procreans. To
PROCREA'TION, n. S. He had such a dextrous proclivity as his teachers
generate; produce :
ProcREA'Tive, adj. were fain to restrain his forwardness, that his bra
procreant and procreathers might keep pace with him.
PROCREA'TIVENESS. tive mean producing; The sensitive appetite may engender a proclivity to pregnant: procreation and procreativeness corsteal, but not a necessity to steal. Bramhall. responding:
PROCLUS, surnamed Diadocus, a Greek The temple-haunting martlet does approve, philosopher and mathematician, was born at Ly- By his loved mansionry, that heaven's breath sia, and lived about the year 500. He was the Smells wooingly here : no jutting frieze, disciple of Syrianus. It is said that, when Vita- But this bird Jian laid siege to Constantinople, Proclus burnt llath made his pendant bed, and procreant cradle.
Shakspeare. his ships with large brazen specula. This philo
The inclosed warmth, which the earth hath stirred sopher was a Pagan, and wrote against the Christian religion. There are still extant his up by the heat of the sun, assisteth nature in the
speedier procreation of those varieties which the earth Commentaries on some of Plato's books, and bringeth forth.
Raleigh. others of his works written in Greek.
These have the accurst privilege of propagating PROCON SUL, n. s. Latin proconsul. A and not expiring, and have reconciled the procreativeRoman officer who governed a province with ness of corporeal, with the duration of incorporeal consular authority.
Decay of Piety. Every child knoweth how dear the works of Homer Neither her outside formed so fair, nor aught were to Alexander, Virgil to Augustus, Ausonius to In procreation common to all kinds. Milton. Gratian, who made him proconsul, Chaucer to Richard The ordinary period of the human procreative faII., and Gower to Henry IV. Peacham. culty in males is sixty-five, in females forty-five.
Hale. Proconsuls were appointed out of the body of the senate ; and usually as the year
Uncleanness is an unlawful gratification of the apof any
South. one's consulate expired, he was sent proconsul
petite of procreation.
Since the earth retains her fruitful power, into some province. The proconsuls decided
To procreate plants the forest to restore ; cases of equity and justice, either privately in
Say, why to nobler animals alone thair prætorium or palace, where they received Should she be feeble, and unfruitful grown? petitions, heard complaints, granted writs under
Flies crushed and corrupted, when inclosed in
Whom nothing car procure, such vessels, did never procreate a new fly.
When the wide world runs bias, from his will Bentley. To writhe his limbs, and share, not mend the ill.
Herbert. PROCRIS, a daughter of Pandion, or, according to others, of Erechtheus, king of Athens,
They confirm and seal
Their undertaking with their dearest blood, and wife of Cephalus. See Cephalus.
As procurators for the commonweal. Daniel. PROCRUSTES, in fabulous history, a fa
Happy, though but ill, mous robber of Attica, who was killed by The
If we procure not to ourselves more woe. Milton. seus, near the Cephisus. He used to tie travellers upon a bed; and, if their length exceeded of passions, and a procurer of contentedness,
Angling was, after tedious study, a moderator that of his bed, he cut off their feet and as much
Walton. of their legs as exceeded; but if they were Though it be a far more common and procurable shorter, he racked and stretched them till their liquor than the infusion of lignum nephriticum, it length was equal to his own :-an emphatic em may yet be easily substituted in its room. Boyle. blem of bigotry. He is called by some Da
We no other pains endure, mastes.
Than those that we ourselves procure. Dryden. PROC’TOR, n. s. Contracted of Lat. pro Qur author calls colouring, lena sororis, in plain curator. A manager of another man's affairs: English, the bawd of her sister, the design or drawan ecclesiastical and university officer.
ing: she clothes, she dresses her up, she paints her, The most clamorous for this pretended reforma. she makes her appear more lovely than naturally shie tion are either atheists, or else proctors suborned by is, she procures for the design, and makes lovers for
With what impatience must the muse behold
Id. To make it clear. Shakspeare. Antony and Cleopatra. They mourn your
ruin as their
proper From a scholar he became a fellow, and the pre Cursing the empress ; for they think it done sident of the college, after he had received all the By her procurement.
Id. Aurengzebe. graces and degrees, the proctorship and the doctor I saw the most artful procuress in town seducing a ship.
Spectator. The proctor sent his servitor to call him. Walter. Strumpets in their youth turn procurerse in their
South. I find him charging the inconveniences in the age: payment of tythes upon the clergy and proctors.
All procuratorial exceptions ought to be made beSwift.
fore contestation of suit, and not afterwards, as being
dilatory exceptions, if a proctor was then made and PROCULEIUS, a Roman knight, who was
Ayliffe. very intimate with Augustus. He is justly famed
Those, who formerly were doubtful in this matter, for his fraternal affection to his brothers, Mu
upon strict and repeated inspection of these bodies, ræna and Scipio, with whom he divided his pos- and procuration of plain shells from this island, are sessions, after they had forfeited their estates, now convinced that these are the remains of seaand offended Augustus, by joining with Pompey animals.
Woodward's Natural History. the younger. He was sent by Augustus to queen
PROCYON, in ancient astronomy, a star near Cleopatra, to persuade her to surrender to him, the dog-star, before which it generally rises in but failed.
July. Cicero calls it Anticanis, which signifies PROCURE, v. a. &v.n.) Fr. procurer ;
the same with προκυον. Procu’RABLE, adj.
Lat. procuro. To PRODANO (the ancient Prote), a small island Procu'RACY, n. s. manage ; transact of Greece, on the west coast of the Morea, and Procura'tion,
for another ; ob- separated from it only by a narrow channel. It Procura'TOR,
tain; forward ; forms a small but secure bay, sixteen miles north PROCUR A TOʻRIAL, adj. contrive; persuade; by west of Navarin. Lat. 37° 10' N. ProcurE'MENT, n. s. prevail on; PRODICUS, a celebrated sophist and rhetoPROCU'RER,
pimp : procurable rician of Cos, who flourished about A.A.C Procu'RESS.
J is obtainable; to 396. He was sent ambassador by the Coans to be acquired : procuracy and procuration, man- Athens, where he taught publicly, and had among agement or transaction of a thing, particularly his pupils Socrates, Euripides, Theramenes, and for another : procurator, he who so manages or Isocrates. He travelled through most towns of transacts affairs : procuratorial, made by, or per- Greece, and made his auditors pay to hear his taining to a proctor : procurement is the act of lectures. His writings were numerous; and procuring: procurer, one who gains; obtains, or among them was the well known beautiful epiacquires, particularly for others; a pander: pro- sode of Hercules's Choice, when addressed by curess, a bawd.
Pleasure and Virtue, when the hero became the They shall fear and tremble, for all the prosperity votary of the latter goddess. Prodicus expethat I procure unto it.
Jeremiah xxxiii. 9. rienced the fate of his excellent pupil, Socrates, I had in charge at my depart from France,
being at last put to death by the Athenians, on As procurator for your excellence,
pretence that he corrupted the morals of their To marry princess Marg’ret for your grace. youth. Xenoph. Mem.
PROD’IGAL, adj. Fr. prodigue; Lat. Is it my lady mother ?
ProdigaL'ITY, n. s. prodigus.
Profuse; What unaccustomed cause procures her hither? Id. Prod'IGALLY, adv. wasteful; expensive; Proceed, Salinus, to procure my fall,
lavish; with of' before the object, and the noun And by the doom of death end woes and all. Id. substantive and adverb corresponding.
Be now as prodigal of all dear grace,
It is prodigious to have thunder in a clear sky. As nature was in making graces dear,
Browne. When she did starve the general world beside,
Then ent'ring at the gate,
He mixed, unmarked, amongst the busy throng. Framed in the prodigality of nature,
Druden, The spacious world cannot again afford.
I do not mean absolutely according to philosoDiogenes did beg more of a prodigal man than the phic exactness infinite, but only infinite or innumerest; whereupon one said, see your baseness, that rable as to us, or their number prodigiously great. when you find a liberal mind, you will take most of
Ray on the Creation. him ; no, said Diogenes, but I mean to beg of the They would seem prodigies of learning. rest again. Bacon.
Spectator. Lest I should seem over prodigal in the praise of The party opposite to our settlement seem to be my countrymen, I will only present you with some driven out of all human methods, and are reduced few verses.
Camden. to the poor comfort of prodigies and old woman's We are not yet so wretched in our fortunes, fables.
Addison. Nor in our wills so lost, as to abandon
The Rhone enters the lake, and brings along with A friendship prodigally, of that price
it a prodigious quantity of water.
Id. As is the senate and the people of Rome.
I am prodigiously pleased with this joint volume. Ben Jonson.
Pope. A beggar grows rich, becomes a prodigal; for to It is a scandal to Christianity that in towns, where obscure his former obscurity, he puts on riot and ex there is a prodigious increase in the number of houses
Id. and inhabitants, so little care should be taken for Lucian has well described the fate of prodigals in churches.
Swift. his picture of Opulentia, whose residence he repre
PROD’ITOR, n. s. Lat. proditor. A traitor. sents to be on a lofty mountain, the summit of which
Not in use. her fond votaries are eagerly endeavouring to reach.
Burton. Pieled priest, dost thou command me be shut out? I cannot well be thought so prodigally thirsty of -I do, thou most usurping proditor. Shakspeare. my subject's blood as to venture my own life.
Solid and conclusive characters are emergent from
King Charles. the mind, and start out of children when themselves As a hero, whom his baser foes
least think of it; for nature is proditorious. In troops surround ; now these assail, now those,
Wotton on Education. Though prodigal of life, disdains to die
Now proditorious wretch! what hast thou done, By common hands.
Denham. To make this barb'rous base assassinate ? Daniel. He that decries covetousness, should not be held
PRODUCE', v. a. & n. s. Fr. produire; an adversary to him that opposeth prodigality.
Produ'CENT, n. s.
Lat. produco. To
exhibit or offer to The prodigal of soul rushed on the stroke
Produ'CIBLE, adj. notice; bring forOf lifted weapons, and did wounds provoke.
ward; bear; bring Let the wasteful prodigal be slain.
forth; cause ; beThe most severe censor cannot but be pleased
get; generate; with the prodigality of his wit, though at the same PRODUCTIVE, adj.
effect: as a noun time he could have wished, that the master of it had substantive, that which is produced; amount; been a better manager.
profit: producent and producer mean, one that Nature not bounteous now, but lavish grows, offers or exhibits; one that generates or brings Our paths with flow'rs she prodigally strows.
forth: producible, such as may be exhibited; Id.
may be made or generated : product, something O! beware, Great warrior, nor, too prodigal of life,
yielded by nature; composition; work; effect; Expose the British safety.
result; sum: production, the act of producing, It is not always so obvious to distinguish be or thing produced : productive, having efficient tween an act of liberality and act of prodigality. or generative power; fruitful.
South. Produce your cause, saith the Lord; bring forth PRODIGʻIOUS, adj. Fr. prodigieur ; your strong reasons.
Isaiah xli. 21. PRODIGʻIOUSLY, adv. Lat. prodigiosus.
This soil produces all sorts of palm trees. PRODIGʻIOUSNESS, n. S.
Sandys. Amazing; astonishPROD'igy.
It seems not meet, nor wholesome to my place,
To be produced against the Moor. Shakspeare. enormous; monstrous: the adverb and noun
Somewhat is produced of nothing; for lyes are · substantive corresponding : prodigy is, any thing sufficient to breed opinion, and opinion brings on out of the ordinary process of nature; portent. substance.
Bacon. Be no more an exhaled meteor,
By examining how I, that could contribute noA prodigu of fear, and a portent
thing to mine own being, should be here, I came Of broached mischief to the unborn times. to ask the same question for my father, and so am
Shakspeare. led in a direct line to a first producer that must be If e'er he have a child, abortive be it,
more than man.
Suckling. Prodigious and untimely brought to light! Id. Many warm expressions of the fathers are proAn emission of immateriate virtues we are a
ducible in this case.
Decay of Piety. little doubtful to propound, it being so prodigious ; There is no reason producible to free the Christian but that it is constantly avouched by many. Bacon.
children and idiots from the blame of not believing. Most of mankind, through their own sluggish- which will not with equal force be producible for ness, become nature's prodigies, not her children. those heathers to whom the gospel was never reBen Jonson. vealed.
They by imprudence inixed
We have had our names prefixed at length to Produce prodigious births of body or mind. whole volumes of mean productions.
Id. Milton. Numbers of Scots are glad to exchange their barren Thou all this good of evil shalt produce. Id. hills for our fruitful vales so productive of that grain.
These are the product Of those ill-mated marriages. Id. Paradise Lost. Plutarch in his life of Theseus, says, that that In thee,
age was productive of men of prodigious stature. Not in themselves, all their known virtue appears
Broome. Productive as in herb and plant.
Milton. Most of those books which have obtained great The best of queens and best of herbs we owe reputation in the world are the products of great and To that bold nation, which the way did show
Watts. To the fair region, where the sun does rise,
It is generally known that he who expects much Whose rich productions we so justly prize. will be often disappointed ; yet disappointment sel
Waller. dom cures us of expectation, or has any other effect The salts producible, are the alcalis or fixed salts, than that of producing a moral sentence or peevish which seem to have an antipathy with acid ones. exclamation.
Johnson. Boule. PRO’EM, n. s. Old Fr. proëme ; Lat. proTo confirm our doctrine of the producibleness of @mium ; Gr. A pooiplov. Preface; introduction. sales, Helmont assures us that, by Paracelsus's sal One and the same proem, containing a general circulatum, solid bodies, particularly stones, may motive to provoke people to obedience of all and be transmuted into actual salt equiponderant. Id.
every one of these precepts, was prefixed before the You hoard not health for your own private use, decalogue.
White. But on the publick spend the rich produce.
So glozed the tempter, and his proem tuned. Dryden.
Milton. A painter should foresee the harmony of the lights Justinian has, in the proem to the digests, only and shadows, taking from each of them that which prefixed the term of five years for studying the laws. will most conduce to the production of a beautiful
Thus much may serve by way of proem, Be thou my aid, my tuneful song inspire,
Proceed we therefore to our poem. And kindle with thy own productive fire. Id.
Swift's Miscellanies. Observing in ourselves, that we can at pleasure move several parts of our bodies; the effects also, ters of Proetus, king of Argos; who, preferring
PROETIDES, in fabulous history, the daughthat natural bodies are able to produce in one another, occurring every moment to our senses, we both themselves to Juno, were struck with insanity, these ways get the idea of power.
and believed themselves to be turned into cows. Whenever want of money, or want of desire in the They soon infected the rest of the Argian women, consumer, makes the price low, that immediately but were cured by Melampus, who received one reaches the first producer.
of these princesses, and two-thirds of Argos, for The landholder, having nothing but what the his reward. See MELAMPUS. Their names were product of his land will yield, must take the market. Lysippe, Iphinoe or Ipponoe, and Iphianassa, rate.
or Cyrianassa. In Staffordshire, after their lands are marled, they
PROETUS, in fabulous history, a king of sow it with barley, allowing three bushels to an Argos; the son of Abas and Ocalea, and twin acre. Its common produce is thirty bushels.
brother of Acrisius, with whom he is said to have If the productive fat of the marl be spent, it is quarrelled even in the womb. Their dissensions Dot capable of being mended with new. Mortimer.
increased with their years, and, on Abas's death, Range in the same quarter the products of the they contended for the kingdom; but, Acrisius same season.
Spectator. prevailing, Proetus retired to Iobates, king of This is turning nobility into a principle of virtue, Lycia, whose daughter, Sthenoboea, he married, and making it productive of merit, as it is understood by whom he had Megapenthes, and the Proeto have been originally a reward of it.
Id. tides. By lobates's assistance, he took TirynThat is accounted probable which has better ar thus. Homer. Iliad. vi. guments producible for it, than can be brought against PROFANE', adj. & v.a. Fr. profane ; Lat.
rent to sacred Produced, his art was at a stand. Addison.
PROFA'NER, n. s. This tax has already been so often tried, that we
things; polluted ; krow the exact produce of it. Id. Freeholder.
PROFANE'NESS, n. s. impure; not Oar British products are of such kinds and quanti cred: to pollute ; violate; wrongly use: profanaties, as can turn the balance of trade to our advan tion, the act or habit of violating or treating tage.
Addison. irreverently things sacred : the adverb and other If an instrument be produced with a protestation noun substantives corresponding. in favour of the producent, and the adverse party does Pity the temple profaned of ungodly men. not contradict, it shall be construed to the advantage
2 Maccabees. of the producent.
Ayliffe. He knew how bold men are to take even from God See thy bright altars
himself; how hardly that house would be kept from Heaped with the products of Sabean springs. Pope. impious profunation he knew.
Hooker. Hymen's flames like stars unite,
The argument which our Saviour useth against And burn for ever one ;
profaners of the temple, he taketh from the use Chaste as cold Cynthia's virgin light whereunto it was with solemnity consecrated. Id. Productive as the sun.
Profane fellow! Your parents did not produce you much into the Were thou the son of Jupiter, and no more world, whereby you avoided many wrong steps. But what thou art besides, thou wert too base
He then, that is not furnished in this sort, one's skill in any art or science; to declare Doth but usurp the sacred name of knight, openly; enter on a state of life by a public proProfuning this most honourable order.
fession; declare friendship: professedly is,
Shakspeare. declaratively; according to one's own declaraI feel me much to blame,
tion: profession, declaration; act of declaring So idly to profane the precious time. Id.
one's own party or opinion; calling; known Great men may jest with saints
, 'tis wit in them: pursuit; technically distinguished from a trade, But, in the less, foul profanation.
and applied to divinity, physic, and law, as voRebellious subjects, enemies to peace,
Id. Profuners of this neighbour-stained steel.
cations: professional, relating to, or befitting a Apollo, pardon
profession: professor, one who publicly declares My great profaneness 'gainst thy oracle ! Id. himself of a particular party or opinion; or pubNothing is profane that serveth to holy things. licly teaches an art or science: professorship, his
station or office, 'Twere profanation of our joys,
Profess unto the Lord, that I am come unto the To tell the laity our love.
country which the Lord śware unto our fathers. Let none of things serious, much less of divine,
Deut. xxvi. 3. When belly and head's full, profanely dispute. They profess that they know God, but in works
Titus i. 16. Profanation of the Lord's day, and of other solemn
The professions of princes, when a crown is the festival days, which are devoted to divine and reli- bait, are a slender security.
Lesley. gious offices, is impious.
Love well your father ;
your professing bosoms I commit him. Profaned first by the serpent, by him first
Shakspeare. Made common and unballowed. Milton. The day almost itself professes yours, Far hence be souls profane,
And little is to do.
Id. Macbeth. The Sibyl cried, and from the grove abstain. Would you have me speak after my custom,
Dryden. As being a professed tyrant to their sex ? · How far have we
Shakspeare. Profaned thy heavenly gift of poesy !
As he does conceive, Made prostitute and profligate the muse,
He is dishonoured by a man, which ever Debased.
Professed to him ; why, his revenges must You can banish from thence scurrility and pro In that be made more bitter.
Id. funeness, and restrain the licentious insolence of
I must tell you poets and their actors.
You tender more your person's honour, than Others think I ought not to have translated Your high profession spiritual.
Id. Chaucer : they suppose a veneration due to his old
If we confound arts with the abuse of them, we language, and that it is little less than profanation and shall condemn all honest trades ; for there are that sacrilege to alter it.
deceive in all professions, and bury in forgetfulness all How are festivals profaned? When they are not knowledge.
Raleigh. regarded, nor distinguished from common days ; When the holiness of the professors of religion is when they are made instruments of vice and vanity; decayed, you may doubt the springing up of a new when they are spent in luxury and debauchery; when
Bacon's Essays. our joy degenerates into sensuality, and we express But Purbeck, as profest a huntress and a nun, it by intemperance and excess. Neison, The wide and wealthy sea, nor all his pow'r
respects. The universality of the deluge is attested by pro
Drayton. fane history; for the fame of it is gone through the I could not grant too much to men, that, being earth, and there are records or traditions concerning professedly my subjects, pretended religious strictness. it in all parts of this and the new found world,
King Charles. Burnet's Theory. An ill Christian is the worst of all men ; an ill These have caused the weak to stumble, and the professor the worst of all Christians; an ill minister profane to blaspheme, offending the one, and harden the worst of all professors. ing the other.
The whole church of professors at Philippi to whom All profanation and invasion of things sacred is he writes was not made up wholly of the elect, sinan offence against the eternal law of nature. là.
cere, and persevering Christians, but like the net, in There are a lighter ludicrous sort of profaners, who Christ's parable, that caught both good and bad, and use the scripture to furnish out their jests.
had no doubt some insincere persons, hypocrites, and Government of the Tongue. temporaries in it.
Hammond. Edicts against immorality and profaneness, laws
Pretending first against oaths and execrations, we trainple upon. Wise to fly pain, professing next the spy, Atterbury.
Milton. That proud scholar, intending to erect altars to A naked profession may have credit, where no Virgil, speaks of Homer too profanely. Broome. other evidence can be given.
Glanville's Scepsis. PROFECTION, n. s. Lat. profectio. Ad
Dr. Prideaux succeeded him in the professorship; vance; progression.
being then elected bishop of Worcester ; Sanderson This, with profection of the horoscope unto the succeeded him in the regius professorship. Wotton. seventh house or opposite signs, every seventh year
For by oil in their lamps, and the first lighting oppresseth living creatures.
of them which was common to them both, is PROFESS', v. a. & v. n. Fr. professer ;
meant that solemn profession of faith and repentPROFESS'Edly, adv.
which all christians make in baptism. Lat. professus. To
Tillotson. Profes'sion, n. s.
declare or make an PROFESSIONAL, adj.
A servant to thy sex, a slave to thee,
A foe profest to barren chastity. Dryden. Profess'or, n. s. opinion respecting Virgil, whom he professedly imitated, has surpassed PROFESS'OR-SHIP. any thing; assert him among the Romans.