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POTH'ER, n. s. This word is sometimes flows into Chesapeake Bay, between Point Lookwritten podder, sometimes pudder, and is de- out and Smith's Point. It is seven miles and a rived by Junius from Fr. foudre, thunder, by half wide at its mouth, and one mile and a quarter Skinner from Dut. peuteren or peteren, to shake at Alexandria, 200 miles from the Ocean. The or dig; and more probably, by a second thought, termination of the tide water is above 300 miles from Fr. poudre, dust. See BOTHER. Bustle; from the sea, and the river is navigable for ships tumult; flutter. A low word.
of the greatest burden through nearly that disSuch a pother,
tance. Above the tide water the river has three As if that whatsoever god, who leads him, considerable falls, those above Georgetown are Were crept into his human powers,
now passable in boats. Its length above the And gave him graceful posture.
tide is upwards of 300 miles through an inhabited Shakspeare. Coriolanus.
country. Its junction with the Shenando at He suddenly unties the poke,
Harper's Ferry is regarded as a great curiosity. Which from it sent out such a smoke,
The river has seven fathoms of water at its As ready was them all to choke,
mouth, five at St. George's island, four and a So grievous was the pother. Drayton. Some hold the one, and some the other,
half at Lower Matchodic, and three at Swan's But howsoe'er they make a pother. Hudibras.
Point, and thence to Alexandria. He that loves reading and writing, yet finds cer
Potomac ACADEMY, in Prince George county, tain seasons wherein those things have no relish, Valencia, near the Potomac ; twenty-three miles only pothers and wearies himself to no purpose.
east of Fredericksburg.
Locke. Potomac Creek, a river of Virginia, which I always speak well of thee,
runs into the Potomac. Long. 77° 22' W., lat. Thou always speak'st ill of me;
38° 24' N. Yet after all our noise and pother,
POTOSI, a government once belonging to The world believes nor one nor t’other. Peru, but added by the Spanish government to
the viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres, and one of the 'Tis yet in vain to keep a pother
most valuable of its territories. It is bounded About one vice, and fall into the other. Pope. What a pother has been here with Wood and his
on the north by the cordillera of Vilcanota, brass,
which separates it from the Peruvian provinces, Who would modestly make a few half-pennies pass! and by countries inhabited by wandering tribes;
on the east by the mountains of Arequipa, the POTHOS, in botany, a genus of the polyandria Pacific Ocean, and the Chilian Andes ; on the order, and gynandria class of plants. The spatha west by the governments of Paraguay and Buenos or sheath is a simple spadix covered : Cal. none:
Ayres; and on the south by that of Buenos Ayres. petals four, and as many stamina; the berries are
Great part of it is full of mountains, ravines, and dispermous. Species four, American plants.
chasms, of a very cold temperature, and almost POTIDÆA, a town of Macedonia, in the barren of vegetable productions; in other parts peninsula of Pallene. It was founded by a
the country is covered with deserts, forests, vast colony of Corinthians, and became tributary to plains, and mountain streams expanding into the Athenians, from whom Philip II. of Macedon rivers. The Provincias de la Sierra, which lie took it, and gave it to the Olynthians, whom he
near the Andes, are the most populous. afterwards extirpated. Cassander repaired and
Potosi, a city of the above province and disenlarged it, and named it Cassandria.
trict of Porco, is situated in a narrow glen on POTION, 7.s.
the river of this name, and on the south side of Fr. potion ; Lat. potio. A draught; commonly a physical draught.
the mountain which contains the Potosi mines. For tastes in the taking of a potion or pills, the The environs are barren, and the climate cold; head and neck shake. Bacon's Natural History.
the valleys being destitute of wood, the sides of The earl was by nature of so indifferent a taste, the hills covered only with moss, and their sumthat he would stop in the midst of any physical po- mits with eternal snows. A few vicunas are the tion, and, after he had licked his lips, would drink off only animals now and then seen grazing in this the rest.
Wotton. elevated region. Most do taste through fond intemperate thirst; The silver mine of Potosi is by far the most Soon as the potion works, their human countenance, productive of the whole of those in this governThe' express resemblance of the gods, is changed
ment. The mountain from which the metal is Into some brutish form of wolf or bear. Milton.
extracted is of a conical form, about six leagues POTNIÆ, a town of Bæotia, where Bacchus in circumference, and 4182 feet above the neighbad a temple. The Potnians, having murdered bouring plains. The discovery of its treasure the priest of Bacchus, were ordered by the ora was owing entirely to the accident we have adcle to sacrifice a young man annually. This hor- verted to in our article AMERICA, South, which rible sacrifice having continued some years, see: a Peruvian, named Diego Hualpa, while Bacchus interposed and substituted a goat. chasing some chamois among the rocks, in his Paus. 9. c. 8.
ascent laid hold of a small shrub, whose roots POTOMAC, a river of the United States,
which giving way disclosed to his view an immense rises in two branches, the north and south, ori- vein of silver, which has been since distinguished ginating in and near the Alleghany mountains, by the name of La Rica, or the Rich. The Inand forming, through its whole course, part of dian concealed the circumstance for a time from the boundary between Virginia and Maryland. all his friends, and only had recourse to this It passes by Shepherdstown, Georgetown, Wash: treasure to supply his occasional wants; but the ington city, Alexandria, Port Tobacco, &c., and obvious change in his fortune had excited the
suspicions of one of his companions, who, by 71,818,686% marks of silver, which, for 157 urgent entreaties, drew from him the secret, and, years and a half, is at an annual average proupon some slight quarrel, he soon after revealed duce of nearly 455,991marks. it to his master, a Spaniard. The information 4. Between the 20th of July 1736 and the was no sooner received than the mine was opened; 31st of December 1789, during which the one and it was formally registered 21st of April, and a half per cent. de covos and the half of the 1545. Since that time it has been constantly fifth only were paid, the royal duties amounted wrought, and the silver, which has paid the to 14,542,684 piastres, making a total produce royal duties from this mine, has been valued of 128,129,374, piastres, or 15,074,044 marks at 5750,000,000 of livres tournois, equal to of silver, which, for fifty-three years and a half, £234,693,840 sterling. The mountain is now makes an annual produce of nearly 281,758 almost completely excavated, and is perforated marks. with above 300 pits, few of which, however, are 5. From 1789 to 1803 we have no account of more than seventy yards deep. It is opened at the royal duties; but during that period the the base; and vaults, dug horizontally, penetrate total produce of Potosi, according to the records into its bowels, and meet the veins of silver. In of the mint,' was 46,000,000 of piastres, or these vaults, which are called by the miners sa- 5,411,764 marks, making a yearly average of . cabouas, and are about six feet high and eight 386,554} marks. feet broad, the air is cold and unwholesome, and It appears, therefore, that the annual produce the Indians work there alternately night and of the last period is little more than a fourth of day, entirely naked, lest they should embezzle that of the first; but, in giving the average pro
duce for such long periods, the gradual diminuOn the first discovery of the mine of Potosi, tion or increase of the quantity of silver exthe metal was much purer than at present, being tracted from these mines could not be distinctly now inferior to many of the other mines. It is marked. We may therefore observe that, during the abundance of the ore alone which renders it the second period, when the royal duties were worth working. According to Acosta, the aver- first correctly registered, the king's fifth varied age contents of silver in the crude ore were, in from 500,000 to 300,000 piastres; and that, 1574, from eight to nine marks per quintal; and during the first fifty years of the third period, the minerals which yielded fifty marks per quin- the duties varied from 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 tal were considered as extremely rich. Since piastres; and then gradually diminished until the beginning of the eighteenth century, how- 1735, when they only amounted to 271,621 ever, they reckon only from three to four marks piastres, 6 reals. From 1737 to 1789, the inper caxon, or from 18 to fos per quintal. A caxon crease was equally gradual from 183,704 to contains about 50 cwt. From this it appears that 335,468 piastres. We may also remark that, in the mean riches of the minerals have diminished these calculations, we have uniformly valued the in the proportion of 170 to one; but, what is sur- piastre at only eight reals de plata, although, prising, the quantity of silver extracted from the until near the close of the sixteenth century, mines of Potosi has only diminished in the pro- the Spaniards reckoned by piastres of 480 maportion of four to one, according to the follow- ravedis, or nearly 13} reals de plata. In estiing calculations, which are from Humboldt.
mating, therefore, the total produce of these 1. From the opening of the mines of Potosi mines from 1545 to 1803, allowance must be in 1545 to the year 1556, when the royal duties made for this low valuation. were first recorded with accuracy, Ulloa, upon The quantity of silver extracted from the the authority of Don Sebastiani Sandoval y mines of Potosi during the Guzman, who published an account of these
Marks. mines in 1634, entitled Pretensiones del Potosi, 1st period, was
15,000,000 makes the total produce which paid duty to be 2nd
5,765,827 613,000,000 of piastres, making a yearly aver- 3rd
71,818,686 age of 55,726,000 piastres, or 6,556,000 marks
15,074,044 of silver. This immense sụm, however, Hum
5,411,764 boldt, upon unquestionable data, has reduced to 127,500,000 piastres, or 15,000,000 of marks,
113,070,321 making an annual produce of nearly 1,363,636$ Allowance for the value of the marks.
piastre before 1600
15,000,000 2. The royal duties paid on the silver extracted from the mines of Potosi, between the 1st
128,070,321 of January 1556, and 31st of December 1578, To this may be added one-fourth during which the fifth only was paid, amounted
more, on account of the enorto 9,801,906 piastres, making a total produce of
mous contraband at former pe49,009,530 piastres : or 5,765,827 marks of sil
32,017,580 ver, which, for twenty-three years, makes the average annual produce of 256,688 marks.
160,087,901 3. The duties paid from the 1st of January 1579, to the 19th of July 1736, during which See a more detailed statement of the produce of one and a half per cent. de covos was first paid, late years in the article already referred to. and then the fifth of the remaining 98) piastres, Nothing, according to Helms, can equal the amounted to 129,417,273 piastres, making a ignorance with which the mining is here carried total produce of nearly 610,458,835 piastres, or on. The mines, many of them, are filled with
water, which, by the application of proper ma- rounded by deserts, or countries inhabited by chidery, might be easily drained off. The me- wandering and independent tribes of Indians. thods employed for this purpose are, however, On the south it is bounded by the intendancies ill contrived and ineffectual. Mr. Helms 'saw of Vera-Cruz, Mexico, and Guanaxuato; on the one drain which had been begun, in 1779, and east by the gulf of Mexico, and on the west by bad, at an incredible expense, been carried two Zacatecas and Durango. This immense district miles. This drain, even at its mouth, was too includes, therefore, a greater surface than Europe high, and it had been made to slope one yard in or Spain; but though gifted by nature with the every 132 ; so that it could not possibly free most precious productions, and situated under many of the pits from the water with which they a serene sky, it is quite wild as to cultivation were overwhelmed. “Still greater ignorance,' in most parts, and more thinly peopled than says Mr. Helms, ' was, if possible, displayed by Asiatic Russia. Its position on the eastern limits the directors of the smelting houses and refining of New Spain, the proximity of the United works at Potosi. By their method of amalgama- States, the easy communication with the colotion, they were scarcely able to gain two-thirds nists of Louisiana, and various other circumof the silver contained in the paco-ore; and, for stances, concur, however, to favor its progress every mark of pure silver gained, they destroyed towards civilisation and prosperity. one, and frequently two, marks of quicksilver. On the coast, which is 230 leagues in extent, Indeed all the operations at the mines of Potosi, are a number of lagunas, or salt water lakes. the stamping, sifting, washing, quickening, and The capital is of this name, and contained in roasting the ore, are conducted in so slovenly, Humboldt's time 12,000 inhabitants. It is siwasteful, and unscientific a manner, that to com- tuated on the eastern side of this table-land pare the excellent method of amalgamation in- west of the sources of the Rio de Panuca. vented by baron Born, and practised in Europe, POTSCHINKI, a town of European Russia, with the barbarous process used by these In- in the government of Nischnei-Novgorod. It dians and Spaniards, would be an insult to the has a traffic in cattle, and 4000 inhabitants, and understanding of my readers. The tools of the here is kept by government a stud of horses, Indian miner are very badly contrived and un- which supplies a regiment of life-guards. 117 wieldy. The hammer, which is a square piece miles S. S. E. of Nischnei-Novgorod. of lead of twenty pounds weight, exhausts his POTSDAM, a province of Brandenberg, strength. The iron, a foot and a half long, is a Prussia, comprehending the former districts of great deal too incommodious, and in some nar- the Ucker Mark, the Mark of Priegnitz, and the row places cannot be made use of. The thick greatest part of the Middle Mark. It is situated tallow candles wound round with wool, vitiate between Pomerania and West Prussia on the the air. In the royal mint at Potosi, where from north, and the province of Saxony on the south 550,000 to 600,000 marks of silver, and about and west: Berlin, with a small district around, 2000 marks of gold, are annually coined, affairs forms a distinct government. Towards the were not better conducted. Every hundredweight north-west this province is bounded by the Elbe of refined copper used for alloy in the gold and and the Havel, and on the north-east by the silver coin cost the king £35, through the gross Oder. Its area is about 8000 square miles, diignorance of the overseers of the work, who spent vided into the following thirteen circles :a whole month in roasting and calcining it, and
Lower Barnim, West Havelland, frequently rendered it quite unfit for the pur
East Priegnitz, pose.' These various evils the German com
West Priegnitz, missioners, sent over by the king of Spain to
Zauch-Belzig, Ruppin, inspect the mines, endeavoured to remove.
Juterbock-Lucken Prenzlow, They constructed a new laboratory, according to
Templin, the most improved model, by which the copper
East Havelland, New Angermunde. ores used for alloy could be refined in four hours and a half, and for one-twentieth part of the This track is one extensive low plain, varied Expense incurred by the former process: they only occasionally by hills of slight elevation. also erected machinery for the draining of the The soil, though for the most part a light sand, mines. New amalgamation works were also sometimes barren and even drifting, contains erected, and suitable instructions given to the spots, particularly on the rivers, remarkable for persons employed. “As soon as the water in their fertility. The climate is not cold, and, since the pits, Helms observes, ' can be got 'under, a number of the lakes have been drained, it is the mines of Potosi will be in a more fourishing reckoned healthy. The chief mineral here is condition than ever. The total want of timber, marsh iron ore, which affords about twenty per however, on the naked ridge of mountains on cent. of metal. The inhabitants, about 500,000, which Potosi is situated, very much retards the are in general industrious, and carry on manu
factures of woollens, cotton, and linen. The Potosi, formerly Mine-au-Burton, a post towns are small, the principal, after Potsdam, town and capital of Washington county, Mis- being Brandenburg, Prenzlow, Spandau, and souri territory; forty-five miles west of St. Ge- Ruppin. nevieve, and sixty S.S.W. of St. Louis.
POTSDAM, the chief town of the above governPotosi, San Louis, an extensive intendency ment, is of a square form and situated on the of Mexico or New Spain, under the Spanish north bank of the Havel, which here spreads its government, whose territorial limits it is scarcely waters into a succession of small lakes. Potspossible accurately to ascertain, it being sur- dam, since the elose of the seventeenth century,
has been the frequent residence of the court of and became an apprentice to Mr. Nóurse, one of Berlin, but is indebted for its chief improve the surgeons of St. Bartholomew's Hospital ; of ments to Frederic II. The new town was either which hospital, in 1744-5, he was elected an asbuilt or repaired entirely by that prince: the sistant; and, in 1749, appointed one of the prinfronts of several of the streets are all of stone, cipal surgeons. In 1746 he married the daughter but the rest of the houses are finished in a far of Roberi Cruttenden, Esq. His first publication inferior style. The streets are not as yet all is said to have been planned in 1756, during his paved. On the whole, however, Potsdam may confinement, in .consequence of a compound vie in beauty with Manheim, or any German fracture of the leg: from that time his pen was town. It is surrounded by a wall and ditch, and seldom long unemployed. His practice and has four gates toward the land, and four toward bis reputation were now rapidly increasing: in the river; on the banks of which is the Havel, 1764 he was elected F.R.S.; and afterwards was a magnificent structure, begun in 1660, and ex- complimented with honorary diplomas from the tended progressively during the subsequent Royal Colleges of Surgeons in Edinburgh and reigns. Its finest ornaments are a colonnade, a Dublin. In 1787 he resigned the office of surcupola, and a marble staircase. In the front is geon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, “after having a square for mang
anæuvring troops; and along the served it,' as he used to say, 'man and boy, river extensive gardens. Connected with it also half a century ;' and on the 22d of December, are a theatre, menagerie, and noble stables. The 1788, after an illness of eight days, he expired. town-house was built in 1754, on the plan of He published a great number of treatises on that of Amsterdam. There are in Potsdam ex- various branches in surgery; particularly, On tensive barracks; a great hall for exercising the Tumors which soften the Bones; On Ruptures; troops in bad weather; and in the garrison On the Hydrocele; On Fistula Lachrymalis ; church statues of Mars and Bellona. Here also is On Hernia of the Bladder and Stone; On Fisthe tomb of Frederick II. There are in the town tula in Ano; On Fractures and Dislocations ; six other churches and a Jewish synagogue. On Wounds of the Head; On the Cataract, The market-place is ornamented by statues of Polypus of the Nose, Cancer of the Scrotum, the kings of Prussia and an obelisk. The ly- Ruptures, and Mortification of the Toes. All ceum, two public schools of inferior extent, and these have been collected and published in 1 vol. one belonging to the garrison; the infirmary 4to. itself, a poor-house, and an orphan-house on a POTTER (Christopher), a learned English large scale, for the children of soldiers, are other divine, born in 1591, and educated at Oxford. public establishments worth notice.
In 1633 he published his Answer to a late PoThe population of Potsdam, exclusive of mi- pish Plot, entitled Charity Mistaken, which he litary, is about 17,000; the former amount in wrote by special order of king Charles I., whose general to the number of 6000 or 8000. In the chaplain he then was. In 1634 he was appointed absence of the court, Potsdam seems deserted. dean of Worcester; and in 1640 vice-chancellor Its numerous manufactures are all on a small of the university of Oxford ; in the execution of scale: but brewing is here, as in other German which office he met with considerable hindrance towns, a business of great extent; and the culti- from the members of the long parliament. Upon vation of gardens in the neighbourhood supplies the breaking out of the civil wars, he sent all his no small employment. The palace of Sans plate to the king, declaring that he would Souci, the favorite retreat of the great Frede- rather, like Diogenes, drink in the hollow of his rick,' is three-quarters of a mile to the north- hand, than that his majesty should want;' and west, and stands on the ascent of an eminence. he afterwards suffered much for the royal cause. It is only one story in height, with a circular He was accordingly nominated dean of Durham pavilion at each end: in one is the library of in 1646, but was prevented from being installed Frederick, exactly in the state it was left at his by his death, which happened about two months death. Sans Souci has two appended buildings after. He was a person learned and religious, for a collection of paintings, and for other court exemplary in his conversation, courteous in his entertainments. In the garden is a cabinet of carriage, of a sweet and obliging nature, and of statues, gems, and medals. Two miles to the a comely presence.' He was remarkable for his west is a palace begun towards the close of the charity to the poor. eighteenth century on a magnificent scale, but POTTER (John), D.D., archbishop of Canternot likely to be soon finished. The structure bury, was the son of a linen-draper ai Wakefield, called the marble palace is in the midst of a in Yorkshire, where he was born about 1674. garden at some distance from Sans Souci. Fif- He studied at University College, Oxford ; and teen miles W.S.W. of Berlin, and sixty-one at the age of nineteen published Variantes LecE. N. E. of Dresden.
tiones et Notæ ad Plutarchi Librum de AudienPotsdam, a post town of St. Lawrence dis Poetis; et ad Basilii magni orationem ad county, New York; ninety miles west of Platts- Juvenes, quomodo cum fructu legere possint burg, and 150 N.N. W. of Albany. It is a flou- Græcorum Libros, 8vo., 1693. In 1697 came rishing town. The principal village is situated out his Lycophron, in folio; which is reckoned on the Racket, where there are fine falls, which the best edition of that obscure writer: soon afford excellent seats for mills and manufacto- after he published his Antiquities of Greece, 2 ries. A weekly newspaper is published here. vols. 8vo. These works established his literary
POTT (Percival), F. R.S., was born in Lon- reputation, and engaged him in a correspondence don in 1713. He received the rudiments of his with Grævius and other learned foreigners. In education at a private school at Darne in Kent; 1706 he was made chaplain to the queen ; in
1715 bishop of Oxford; and in 1737 he suc while he proportions the outside with the other, ceeded archbishop Wake in the see of Canter- the wheel constantly turning all the while, and bury; which high station he supported with he wetting his hands from time to time. When much dignity until his death in 1747. He was the vessel is too thick, he uses a flat piece of a learned and exemplary churchman; but strongly iron, somewhat sharp on the edge, to pare off tinctured with the pride of office; and disinherited what is redundant; and, when it is finished, it his eldest son for marrying below his rank. His is taken off from the circular head by a wire Theological works, containing Sermons, Charges, passed under the vessel. The potter's lathe is Discourses on Church Government, and Di- also a kind of wheel, but more simple and slight vinity Lectures, were printed at Oxford, in 3 than the former : its three chief members are an vols. 8vo., 1753.
iron beam or axis three feet and a half high, and POTTER (Robert), a divine of the church of two feet and a half diameter, placed horizontally England, was born in Norfolk in 1721, and edu- at the top of the beam, and serving to form the cated at Emanuel College, Cambridge, where he vessel upon : and another larger wooden wheel, took his bachelor's degree in 1741. His first all of a piece, three inches thick, and two or preferment was the vicarage of Scarning in Nor- three feet broad, fastened to the same beam at folk, where he wrote poems in imitation of Pope, the bottom, and parallel to the horizon. The which were published in 1 vol. 8vo., in 1774. beam or axis turns by a pivot at the bottom in In 1777 appeared his translation of Æschylus, an iron stand. The workman gives the motion with notes, 410.; reprinted in 1779 in 2 vols. 8vo. of the lathe with his feet, by pushing the great In 1781 came out the first volume of his trans- wheel alternately with each foot, still giving it a lation of Euripides, and the second in the year greater or less degree of motion as his work refollowing. In 1788 he printed his Sophocles, quires. They work with the lathe with the same and his school-fellow, lord Thurlow, gave him a instruments, and after the same manner, as with prebend in the church of Norwich : bishop Ba- the wheel. The mouldings are formed by hold. got presented him, about the same time, to the ing a piece of wood or iron cut in the form of vicarages of Lowestoft and Kessingland. He the moulding to the vessel, while the wheel is died at Lowestoft in 1804. Besides the above, turning round; but the feet and handles are Mr. Potter wrote Observations on the Poor made by themselves, and set on with the hand; Laws; an Answer to Dr. Johnson's Lives of the and, if there be any sculpture in the work, it is Poets; A Translation of the Oracle concerning usually done in wooden moulds, and stuck on Babylon, &c.
piece by piece on the outside of the vessel. The POTTERY, the manufacture of earthen-ware, art of making pottery is intimately connected of the art of making earthen vessels. See Delft, with chemistry. For Mr. Wedgewood's rePORCELAIN, &c. The wheel and lathe are the markable improvements in this art see STAFusual instruments in pottery; the first for large FORDSHIRE. works, and the last for small. The potter's The process of manufacturing stoneware is wheel consists principally in the nut, which is a described by Dr. Watson as follows:beam or axis, whose foot or pivot plays perpen Tobacco-pipe clay from Dorsetshire is beaten dicularly on a free-stone sole or bottom. From much in water. By this process, the finer parts the four corners of this beam, which does not of the clay remain suspended in the water, while exceed two feet in height, arise four iron bars, the coarser sand and other impurities fall to the called the spokes of the wheel, which, forming bottom. The thick liquid, consisting of water diagonal lines with the beam, descend, and are and the finer parts of the clay, is farther purified fastened at bottom to the edges of a strong by passing it through hair and lawn sieves, of wooden circle, four feet in diameter, perfectly different degrees of fineness. After this, the like the felloe of a coach wheel, except that it liquid is mixed in various proportions for has neither axis nor radii, and is only joined to various wares) with another liquor, of as nearly the beam, which serves it as an axis, by the iron as may be the same density, and consisting of bars. The top of the nut is nat, of a circular flints calcined, ground, and suspended in water. figure, and a foot in diameter; and on this is The mixture is then dried in a kiln; and, being laid the clay which is to be turned and fashioned. afterwards beaten to a proper temper, it becomes The wheel thus disposed is encompassed with fit for being formed at the wheel into dishes, four sides of four different pieces of wood plates, bowls, &c. When this ware is to be put fastened on a wooden frame; the hind piece, into the furnace to be baked, the several pieces which is that on which the workman sits, is of it are placed in the cases made of clay, called made a little inclining towards the wheel ; on seggars, which are piled one upon another in the the fore pieces are placed the prepared earth; dome of the furnace. A fire is then lighted; on the side piece he rests his feet, and these are and when the ware is brought to a proper temmade inclining to give him more or less room. per, which happens in about forty-eight hours, Having prepared the earth, the potter lays a it is glazed by common salt. The salt is thrown round piece of it on the circular head of the into the surface, through holes in the upper part nut, and, sitting down, turns the wheel with his of it, by the heat of which it is instantly confeet till it moves with the proper velocity; then, verted into a thick vapor; which, circulating wetting his hands with water, he presses his through the furnace, enters the seggar through hand or his finger's end into the middle of the holes made in its side (the top being covered to lump, and thus forms the cavity of the vessel, prevent the salt from falling on the ware), and, continuing to widen it from the middle; thus attaching itself to the surface of the ware, it turning the inside into form with one hand, forms that vitreous coat upon the surface which