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sustenance from him if he refuses to earn it by depend on the number of hours employed, the labor, there can be no injustice in this, for he can velocity of the wheel (which, when there is no bave no positive claim to maintenance; it is true fly-regulator, will also vary with the number of that he has been withdrawn from his trade or men on it at the same time), the distance from occupation, but that is a necessary part of the step to step, and the proportion of those out of punishment of his crime, the forfeiture of the each gang who are on the wheel at one time, to means of resorting to his former mode of earning those who are off. It is obvious, therefore, that a livelihood. But with a man committed only what may be very true of one wheel may be enon suspicion, whom the law still presumes to be tirely false of another. Thus, to select a few ininnocent, and deprives of liberty only because it stances out of many, at Lewes each prisoner sees no other mode of securing his appearance at works at the rate of 6600 feet in ascent per day; the day of trial, all the reason is in favor of his at Ipswich, 7450; at St. Albans, 8000; at Bury, immunity from every other privation or inter- 8950; at Cambridge, 10,175;

at Durham, 12,000; ference. Direct compulsion, we believe, has not at Brixton, Guildford, and Reading the summer been attempted; the only ground on which it rate exceeds 13,000 ; while at Warwick the sumcould be put would be the enforcement of dis- mer rate will be 17,000 feet in ten hours, if the cipline; and undoubtedly that must be preserved, present resolution be adhered to; which, upon if necessary, over every prisoner. We are not, reflection, we are quite sure it never will, as no therefore, disposed to deny, that for riot or dis- strength could long endure such labor. In adorderly behaviour an unconvicted criminal may, dition to these immense differences, those of the from the necessity of the case, be treated as a con- dietaries must also be taken into the account. vict; in whatever character he comes, he is Our remarks shall be confined to the principle bound so far to submit to the laws of the place, of this machine considered generally. as not to interfere with the peace and good order Assuming then that it will be used with disof others. But this is an argument which will cretion and humanity, we will state what we never justify the compulsory labor of a peaceable conceive to be its disadvantages and advantages. and orderly, but slothful or even obstinate pri- In the first place, it is inapplicable to prisoners soner.

under long confinements; there is in it at once With respect to hard labor as a useful mode so much irksomeness, sameness, and real fatigue, of punishment and correction there cannot well that, after subduing a stubborn spirit, we should be much difference of opinion. When, however, be afraid, with long continuance, it might go on this subject first attracted the public attention, almost to stupify the intellect; for, while the the benevolent individuals in different counties body labors, the mind is wholly unemployed. who took the largest share in directing the mea. But, even if this be thought an extreme apprebensure, ‘seldom ventured (as Sir George Paul says) sion, it must be admitted that it not only teaches to turn their eyes from income and profit to a no trade or occupation by which a livelihood county rate; every house of correction was to may afterwards be earned, but must in some become a busy manufactory, and to maintain measure render the parties less fit for manual itself.' Much as we are advocales for industry labor by disuse of those parts and muscles of the in prisoners, and economy of public money, we body which are employed in handicraft trades. think both may be purchased too dearly; and we Making these deductions, of which the latter is are not sorry, we confess, that in almost every capable of an answer when we limit the use of place in which the manufactory-system has been the tread-wheel to confinements of a short duratried it has proved, if not a failing concern on tion, in which a trade could not be learned, nor the whole, yet certainly far less profitable than the body lose its aptness for one to which it had was expected. We do not, of course, mean to been accustomed, the advantages seem to be, that condemn all profitable labor of the prisoners, but the tread-wheel is labor indeed, dreaded in the we are anxious that it should never be the pri- prospect, irksome in endurance, and remembered mary object; in truth the best economy is in that with disgust; that it has never failed to subdue system which produces the fewest recommittals, the most turbulent spirit; that, requiring no inand prevents the most crimes.

struction, every man who can walk may be set The tread-wheel is an invention which has cer- upon it from the moment that his sentence is protainly been exposed to most unfounded attacks, nounced ; that he cannot avoid bis portion of and perhaps been praised far beyond its real labor, the wheel turning by weight and not by merits, but which we do not hesitate to pronounce exertion; that the occupation is so unceasing an important instrument of prison discipline. The that conversation between the prisoners is much fifth Report of the Society for the Improvement restrained ; that it may without injury be emof Prison Discipline is before us, and it is in no ployed for many hours in the day, and with a part more sensible or instructive than in what it very little expense in the open air; that it affords communicates on this subject; on wbich, as great advantages for inspection, and thereby might be expected, a great deal of ignorance much facilitates the duties of the governor. Unprevails : and although almost every tread-wheel der these impressions, and with these restrictions, varies practically in the quantity of labor which we cannot but say that we shall be glad to hear it imposes, and consequently in a great measure in of the erection of a tread-wheel in every conthe effect which it is calculated to produce, the siderable prison in the country. machine is praised or blamed as if it were one We conclude in the words of the Fifth Rething, the same in every prison. The labor of port :-* Of the progress of information and of the wheel it should be remembered is by ascende public feeling, within these few years, on the ing steps, and the amount of ascent made must subject of prison discipline, the former Reports

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of this Society bear ample testimony. Parlia- furnished with teeth, but they are blunt, serving mentary interference, the exertions of the magis- rather to bruise its prey than to divide it by tracy, and diligence of enquiry, have combined cutting. Before the mouth are two foramina, to bring the subject prominently before the pub- supposed to be the nostrils. The rostrum, beak, lic mind. The principles on which punishments or spout, is in general about one-third of the are enforced have undergone the deliberate in- total length of the fish, and contains in some vestigation of the legislature. It is the general eighteen, in others as far as twenty-three or feeling that the unconvicted should be treated twenty-four spines on each side; these are very with as much lenity as is compatible with the stout, much thicker at the back part, and chansafe custody of his person, and the good order of nelled, inclining to an edge forwards. The fins the prison; whilst, upon those on whom the law are seven in number-viz. two dorsal, placed at inflicts punishment, a salutary system of disci- some distance from each other-two pectoral, pline ought to be enforced; that, in the treatment taking rise just behind the breathing-holes, which of the convicted, no severity should be allowed are five in number-two ventral, situated almost that is not warranted by the laws, nor consistent underneath the first dorsal-and, lastly, the cauwith justice; that the prevention of crime is the dal, occupying the tail both above and beneath, altimate object of imprisonment, and that to at- bat longest on the upper part. The general tain this end it is necessary to insure the refor- color of the body is a dull gray, or brownish, mation, as well as the punishment of the prisoner. growing paler as it approaches the belly, where Uniform severity, it is generally admitted, har- it is nearly white. dens the offender, and prepares him for the per 2. P. cirratus, of which, continues pur author, petration of further crimes. It is necessary not we have only met with one specimen, which was only to inspire terror, but to kindle hope to im- brought from Port Jackson in New Holland. It press upon the mind not only a sense of guilt, but is a male, and the total length about forty inches : the love of virtue; and to implant those prin- the snout, from the tip of it to the eye, eleven: ciples, and cherish those feelings, which religion the spines widely different from any of the others; only can impart.

they are indeed placed, as usual, on the edge, The separate discipline of the common gaol, but are continued on each side even beyond the the House of Correction, and the Hulk or Peni- eyes. The longer ones are slender, sharp, sometentiary, might here be adverted to; but on what bent, and about twenty in number; and bethis subject we can only refer to the Quarterly tween these are others not half the length of the Review, No. LX., and the Reports of the Society primal ones, between some three or four, between for the Improvement of Prison Discipline. others as far as six; and in general the middle one

PRISTINE, adj. Lat. pristinus. * First; an- of these smaller series is the longest : besides these cient; original.

a series of minute ones may be perceived beNow their pristine worth

neath, at the very edge. In the snout, likewise, The Britons recollect.

Philips. another singularity occurs :—about the middle This light being trajected only through the parallel of it on each side, near the edge, arises a flexible saperficies of the two prisms, if it suffered any change ligamentous cord, about three inches long, like by the refraction of one superficies, it lost that im- the beards at the mouth of some of the gadus or pression by the contrary refraction of the other cod genus, and as pliant in the recent state. The superficies, and so, being restored to its pristine color of the fish is a pale brown: the breathing coastitution, became of the same nature and condi- apertures four: the mouth furnished with five tion as at first.

Newton.

rows of minute, but very sharp teeth. PRISTIS, in ichthyology, the sawfish, is ge 3. P. cuspidatus. Of this our author has nerally considered as a species of the squalus, seen only two specimens, the one about a foot or shark genus, comprehending under it several and a half in length, and the other more than varieties. Mr. Latham, however, is of opinion two feet and a half. In both of these were that it ought to be considered as a distinct genus twenty-eight spines on each side; but the disitself, and that the characteristics of the several tinguishing feature is the spines themselves, varieties are sufficient to constitute them distinct being particularly flat and broad, and shaped at species. He ranks it as a genus belonging to the point more like the lancet used by surgeons the order of amphibia nantes. Its characters are in bleeding, than any other figure. these: a plain long snout, with spines growing like 4. P. microdon. Of this species the total teeth out of both edges; four or five spiracula, length is twenty-eight inches, the snout occupyor breathing apertures, in the sides of the neck: ing ten; from the base of this to that of the he body is oblong and almost round, with a pectoral fins four inches ; between the pectoral pugh coriaceous skin; the mouth is situated in and ventral fins six. The two dorsal fins occupy the lower part of the head; and the nostrils, nearly the same proportions in respect to each before the mouth, are half covered with a mem- other; but the hinder one is the smallest, and branaceous lobe; behind the eyes are two oval all of them are greatly hollowed out at the back holes; the ventral fins approach one another, part, much more so than in the two first species. and in the male are placed about the organs The snout differs from that of every other in of generation; there are no fins at the anus. several particulars; it is longer in proportion, Of this genus our author enumerates five species: being more than one-third of the whole fish.

1. P. antiquorum. The head is rather flat at The spines do not stand out from the sides more top; the eyes large, with yellow irides ; behind than a quarter of an inch, and from this circumEach is a hole, which some have supposed may stance seem far less capable of doing injury than lead to an organ of hearing. The mouth is well any other species yet known.

vateness.

own.

course.

Dare you,

5. P. pectinatus. This, with the first species, His private with me of the dauphin's love, grows to the largest size of any that have yet is much more general than these lines impart. Id. come under the inspection of the naturalist,

There, this night, some specimens measuring fifteen feet in length.

We'll pass the business privately and well. Id. The pectinatus differs from the P. antiquorum

Ambassadors attending the court in great numin having the snout more narrow in proportion ber, he did content with courtesy, reward, and pri

Bacon. at the base, and the whole of it more slender in all its parts; whereas the first is very broad at for Portugal at that time, with some privado of her

The lady Brampton, an English lady, embarked the base, and tapers considerably thence to the

Id. point. The spines on each side also are longer He drew him into the fatal circle from a resolved and more slender, and vary from twenty-five to privateness, where he bent his mind to a retired thirty-four in the different specimens.

Wotton, PŘITH'EE. A corruption of pray thee, or Peter was but a private man, and not to be any I pray thee.

way compared with the dukes of his house. Well, what was that scream for, I prithee?

Peacham of Antiquities. L’Estrange. Even the privatest person may shine forth in good Alas! why comest thou at this dreadful moment, counsel.

Bp. Hall. To shock the peace of my departing soul ?

My end being private, I have not expressed my Away! I prithee leave me ! Rowe's Jane Shore. conceptions in the language of the schools. Digby. PRIVASET, a small town in the department

Fancy retires of the Dordogne, France, remarkable for the

Into her private cell, where nature rests. Milton. grotto of Miremont, which is at a little distance Birds leave their nests disturbed, and beasts their

Clamours our privacies uneasy make, from it, and which is considered as the finest in

haunts forsake.

Dryden. the kingdom. It is situated about two-thirds up an extremely barren hill; its depth from the

A private man, presume to love a queen? Id. entrance to the extremity of the largest branch Private, or secret prayer, is that which is used by is 545 fathoms, and the extent of all its ramifica- a man alone apart from all others. Duty of Man. tions 2170 fathoms. If the different windings Her sacred privacies all open lie, of the grotto and those which the traveller usually To each profane enquiring vulgar eye. Rowe. makes in order to observe the objects attached You see Frog is religiously true to his bargain, to the sides, were reckoned, they would amount scorns to hearken to any composition, without your

Arbuthnot. to more than six miles; and it would be dan- privacy. gerous to adventure far into it, without the In private grieve, but with a careless scorn ; assistance of a guide accustomed to the place.

In publick seem to triumph, not to mourn.

Granville. PRI'VATE, adj. & n. s. Lat. privatus. SePrivacy, n. s.

The first principles of Christian religion should

cret; reserved;con- not be farced with school points and private tenets. PRIVA'Do, cealed; alone; par

Saunderson. PrivateEr', n. s. & v. a.

ticular: Shakspeare He is at no charge for a fleet, further than proPri'VATELY, adv. uses the noun sub- viding privateers, wherewith his subjects carry on

Pri'VATEN ESS, n. s. stantive for a pri- a piratical war at their own expense. vate message: privacy and privateness mean

Swift's Miscellanies. secresy; retirement; state of being concealed Fame, not contented with her broad highway, or unexposed; it is used, by Arbuthnot im- Delights, for change, througb private paths to stray.

Harte. properly, for privity: privado is adopted from the Spanish by Bacon for a private friend: a Privateers are a kind of private men of privateer is a vessel fitted out by private indivi- war, the persons concerned wherein administer duals against a public enemy : to privateer is to at their own costs a part of a war, by fitting out fit out or conduct such a vessel : privately fol- these ships of force, and providing them with all lows the senses of private, adj.

military stores ; and they have, instead of pay, And, as he sat upor the Mount of Olives, the dis- leave to keep what they take from the enemy, ciples came unto him privately. Matthew xxiv. 3. allowing the admiral his share, &c. Privateers

To correct the particular faults of private men, would be a work too infinite ; yet some there be of may not attempt any thing against the laws of that nature, that though they be in private men, yet haven, under the protection of any prince or

nations; as to assault an enemy in a port or of sheriffs, and their sub-sheriffs and bailiffs, the republic, whether he be friend, ally, or neutral ; corruption of victuallers, &c.

Spenser.

for the peace of such places must be inviolably When publick consent of the whole hath esta. kept; therefore, before a commission shall be blished any thing, every man's judgment, being granted to any privateer, the commander is to thereunto compared, were private, howsoever his give security, if the ship be not above 150 tons, calling be to some kind of public charge; so that of in £1500, and, if the ship exceeds that burden, peace and quietness there is not any way possible, in £3000, that they will make satisfaction for all unless the probable voice of every entire society or damages which they shall commit in their body politick overrule all private of like nature in the same body.

Hooker's Preface.

courses at sea contrary to the treaties with any You shall go with me ;

state, on pain of forfeiting their commissions ; have some private schooling for you both.

and the ship is made liable. Besides these Shakspeare.

private commissions, there are special commisWhat infinite heartease must kings neglect. sions for privateers, granted to commanders of That private men enjoy ? and what have kings, ships, &c., who receive pay, are under marine That private have not too, save ceremony? Id. discipline, and, if they do not obey their orders,

may be punished with death. In case we are at PRIVET, in botany. See LIGUSTRUM. war with more potentates than one, privateers Priver, EVERGREEN. See RHAMNUS. must have commissions for acting against each PRIV'ILEGE, n. s. & v.a. Fr. privilege ; Lat. of them; otherwise, if a captain, carrying only privilegium. Peculiar advantage or right; imone against the Danes, should in his course munity: to invest with peculiar rights or immumeet with and take a Frenchman, this prize is nities. not good, but would be taken from him by any The court is rather deemed as a priveged place of man of war he met, and could not be condemned unbridled licentiousness, than as the abiding of him (for him) in the admiralty. Ships taken by who, as a father, should give a fatherly example. privateers were to be divided into five parts;

Sidney. four parts whereof go to the persons interested

Here's my sword, in the privateer, and the fifth to his majesty. Behold it is the privilege of mine honours, By statute the lord admiral, or commissioners of

My oath, and my profession. Shakspeare. the admiralty, may grant commissions to com

He took this place for sanctuary, manders of privateers for taking ships, &c.,

And it shall privilege him from your hands. Id.

This place which being adjudged prizes, and the tenth part paid to the admiral, &c., wholly belong to the

Doth privilege me, speak what reason will.

Daniel. owners of the privateers and the captors, in pro He claims his privilege, and says 'tis fit, portions agreed on between themselves. PRIVATION, n. s.

Nothing should be the judge of wit, but wit. Fr. privation ; Lat.

Denham. PRIV'ATIVE, adj. &n.s. (privatio. Removal or

He went PRIVATIVELY, adv. S destruction of any Invisible, yet stayed, such privilege thing or quality; removal from office : privative

Hath omnipresence.

Milton. is causing removal, obstruction, or absence of Many things are by our laws privileged from tythes,

Hale. something; that of which the absence of some

which by the canon law are chargeable. other thing forms the chief idea: privatively is When the chief captain ordered him to be scourged negatively.

uncondemned, he pleads the legal privilege of a Ro

Kettlewell. If part of the people or estate be somewhat in the

man, who ought not to be treated so. election, you cannot make them nulls or cyphers in And are the privilege of human love.

Smiles, not allowed to beasts, from reason move,

Dryden. the privation or translation.

Bacon. Harmonical sounds and discordant sounds are both

The great are privileged alone,

Id. active and positive, but blackness and darkness are

To punish all injustice but their own. indeed but privatives, and therefore have little or no

The privilege of birth-right was a double portion."

Locke. activity; somewhat they do contristate, but very little. Id. Natural History.

He happier yet, who privileged by fate For, what is this contagious sin of kind,

To shorter labour, and a lighter weight, But a privation of that grace within ? Davies.

Received but yesterday the gift of breath,

Ordained to-morrow to return to death. Prior. The duty of the new covenant is set down, first pritatively, not like that of Mosaical observances ex As infallibility is no privilege of the human nature, ternal, but positively, laws given into the minds and it is no diminution to a man's good sense or judghearts.

Hammond. ment to be found in an error, provided he is willing The very privative blessings, the blessings of im

to retract it.

Mason. munity, safeguard, liberty, and integrity, which we PRIV'Y, adj.& n. s. Fr. privé. Private; enjoy, deserve the thanksgiving of a whole life. Priv'lly, adv assigned to secret uses;

Taylor. Priv'ity, n. s.

S admitted to secrets; made So bounded are our natural desires,

conscious of: place of retirement, or for secret That wanting all, and setting pain aside, With bare privation sense is satisfied. Dryden.

use: privily is, secretly; privately : privity, priAfter some account of good, evil will be known by

vate communication; consciousness; joint knowconsequence, as being only a privation or absence of ledge; a secret part. good.

South. The sword of the great men that are slain entereth A privation is the absence of what does naturally into their privy chamber.

Esekiel xxi. 14. belong to the thing, or which ought to be present They have the profits of their lands by pretence of with it; as when a man or horse is deaf or dead, conveyances thereof unto their privy friends, who or a physician or divine unlearned ; these are priva- privily send them the revenues. tions Walte's Logick.

Spenser's State of Ireland. PRIVERNUM, a town of the Volsci, in I will unto you in privity discover the drift of my Latium, east of Setia. Having revolted from purpose; I mean thereby to settle an eternal peace the Romans, their ambassadors were asked, what in that country, and also to make it very profitable to

Spenser. punishment they themselves thought they deserv- her majesty. ed? They answered what those deserve who deem The authority of higher powers hath force even in themselves worthy of liberty. Being asked, these things which are done without their privity,

Hooker. should the punishment be remitted, what peace

and are of mean reckoning.

Upon this French going out, took he upon him, was to be expected with them ? they replied, If Without the privrty othe' king, t' appoint you grant a favorable peace, you may hope to Who should attend him. Shakspeare. Henry VIII. have it sincere and lasting; but, if a bad one, you may expect it of short continuance. The Shall seize on half his goods; the other half

The party, 'gainst the which he doth contrive, Romans were so far from being displeased, that comes to the privy coffer of the state. Shakspeare. by a vote of the people they had the freedom

Sir Valentine of the city granted them. The town is now This night intends to steal away your daughter ; called PIPERNO. See that article.

Myself am one made privy to the plot.

Id.

Few of them have any thing to cover their privities. secresy and expedition to transact some state

Abbot. affairs, than the lords and commons. At present Many being privy to the fact,

the privy council takes cognizance of few or no How hard is it to keep it unbetrayed ? matters except such as cannot be well determined

Daniel. One, having let his beard grow from the martyrdom by the known laws and ordinary courts; such as of king Charles I. till the Restoration, desired to be

matters of complaint and sudden emergencies:

Spectator. made a privy counsellor.

their constant business being to consult for the All the doors were laid open for his departure, public good in affairs of state. This power of not without the privity of the prince of Orange, con

the privy council is to enquire into all offences cluding that the kingdom might better be settled in against the government, and to commit the his absence.

Swift. offenders to safe custody, in order to take their He would rather lose half of his kingdom, than be trial in some of the courts of law. But their privy to such a secret, which he commanded me never jurisdiction herein is only to enquire, and not to to mention.

Id.

punish; and the persons committed by them are Your fancy

entitled to their habeas corpus by stat. 16 Car. I. Would still the same ideas give ye,

c. 10, as much as if committed by an ordinary As when you spied her on the privy. Id.

justice of the peace. In plantation or admiralty Privy Council. See Council. The king's causes, which arise out of the jurisdiction of will is the sole constituent of a privy counsellor; this kingdom, and in matters of lunacy and and it also regulates their number, which in idiocy, the privy council has cognizance, even in ancient times was about twelve. Afterwards it questions of extensive property, being the court was increased to so large a number that it was of appeal in such cases; or rather the appeal found inconvenient for secresy and despatch; lies to the king's majesty himself in council. and therefore Charles II. in 1679 limited it to From all the dominions of the crown, excepting thirty, whereof fifteen were principal officers of Great Britain and Ireland, an appellate jurisdicstate, and to be counsellors ex officio; and the tion (in the last resort) is vested in this tribunal; other fifteen were composed of ten lords, and which usually exercises its judicial authority in five commoners of the king's choosing. Since a committee of the whole privy council, who that time, however, the number has been much hear the allegations and proofs, and make their augmented, and now continues indefinite. At report to his majesty in council, by whom the the same time also the ancient office of lord pre- judgment is finally given. Anciently, to strike sident of the council was revived, in the person in the house of a privy counsellor, or elsewhere of Anthony earl of Shaftesbury. Privy coun in his presence, was grievously punished : by 3 sellors are made by the king's nomination, with- Hen. VII. c. 14, if any of the king's servants of out either patent or grant. Any natural born his household conspire or imagine to take away subject of Great Britain is capable of being a the life of a privy counsellor, it is felony, though member of the privy council, taking the proper nothing shall be done upon it; and by 9 Ann. oaths for security of the government. By the c. 16, it is enacted that any person who shall act of settlement, 12 and 13 W. III. c. 2, it is unlawfully attempt to kill, or shall unlawfully enacted that no person born out of the domi- assault, and strike or wound any privy counsellor nions of the crown of England, unless born of in the execution of his office, shall be felons, and English parents, even though naturalised by suffer death as such. With advice of this counparliament, shall be capable of being of the cil, the king issues proclamations that bind the privy council. The duty of a privy counsellor subject, provided they be not contrary to law. appears from the oath of office, which consists In debates, the lowest delivers his opinion first, of seven articles. 1. To advise the king accord- the king last, and thereby determines the matter. ing to the best of his cunning and discretion. A council is never held without the presence of 2. To advise for the king's honor and good of a minister of state. The dissolution of the the public, without partiality, through affection, privy council depends upon the king's pleasure; love, meed, doubt, or dread. 3. To keep the and he may, whenever he thinks proper, disking's council secret. 4. To avoid corruption. charge any particular member, or the whole of 5. To help and strengthen the execution of what it, and appoint another. By the common law shall be there resolved. 6. To withstand all also it was dissolved ipso facto by the king's persons who would attempt the contrary. And, demise, as deriving all its authority from him. lastly, in general, 7. To observe, keep, and do But now, to prevent the inconveniences of all that a good and true counsellor ought to do ing no council in being at the accession of a to his sovereign lord. The privy council is the new prince, it is enacted by 6 Ann. c. 7, that the primum mobile of the state, and that which privy councił shall continue for six months after gives the motion and direction to all the inferior the demise of the crown, unless sooner deterparts. It is likewise a court of justice of great mined by the successor. Blackstone's Comantiquity : the primitive and ordinary way of mentaries, book. i. p. 220, &c. The officers of government in England being by the king and the privy council are four clerks of the council prity council. It has been frequently used by in ordinary, three clerks extraordinary, a keeper all our kings for determining controversies of of the records, and two keepers of the council great importance; the ordinary judges have chamber. See PRESIDENT. sometimes declined giving judgment, till they Privy COUNSELLOR, a member of the privy had consulted the king and privy council; and council. the parliament have frequently referred matters Privy Seal, a seal which the king uses preof high moment to the same, as being, by long viously to such grants, &c., as are afterwards to experience, better able to judge of, and by their pass the great seal The privy seal is also some

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