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self chiefly in the study of modern his doctor's degree, and was presented languages. He was not an inactive by Lord Bath to the perpetual curacy spectator of the battle of Fontenov, of Kenley, in Shropshire. In 1759, which took place on the agih of April, he published “The Conduct of a late 1745; on which occasion he was em- noble Commander considered,"in deploved in carrying orders from Gen. fence of Lord George Sackville. No Campbell to the English who guarded one ever knew that he wrote this, exthe village in which he and the other cept Mhilar the bookseller, to whom generals were stationed. lle returned he made

pre ent of the copy. This to England in September 17.15, with defence of Lord George Sackville was that detachment of the army which suggested solely by the artack so unhad been ordered home on the break- fairly made on him by Ruffhead, be. ing out of the rebellion; and having fore it could possibly be known wheno longer any connexion with the ther he really deserved censure.

In guards, he went back to Baliol college, the same month, he wrote and subwhere he was elected one of the ex- lished A Letter to two great Men, hibitioners on Mr. Snell's foundation, on the Approach of Peace;" a pamIn 1747, he was ordained priest, and phlet which excited great attention, became curate of Tilehurst, near and always passed for having been Reading, and afterwards of Dunsten, written by Lord Bath. In 1760, he in Oxfordshire; where he was resid- wrote the Preface to the Translation ing when, at the recommendation of of Hooke's Negociations, and was in Dr. Charles Stuart and Lad Allen, the same year appointed one of his a particular friend of the Bishop's Majesty's chaplains. In 1761, he pubmother, he was selected by Lord Bath lished" Seasonable Hints from an as a tutor to accompany Loid Pul- honest Man," as an exposition of Lord teney on his travels. In 1750, he was Bath's sentiments. In December 1762, presented by Lord Bath to the vicar- on the day on which the preliminaries age of High Ercal, in Shropsbire, and of peace were to be taken into convacated Eaton Constantine. Heonly siderativn, he wrote the paper called resided occasionally on his livings; “ The Sentiments of a Frenchman;" and, at the desire of Lord Bath, took which was printed on a sheet, pasted a house in a street contiguous to Bath on the walls in every part of London, House, where he passed the winter and distribuied among the niembers months. In the summer, he generally of parliament as they entered the accompanied Lord Bath in his ex- house. In 1763, he superintended cursions to Tunbridge, Cheltenham, the publication of “ Henry, Earl of Shrewsbury, and Baih, "and in bis Clarendon's Diary and Letters," and visits to the Duke of CI veland, Lord wrote the preface which is prefixed to Lyttleton, Sir Henry Bedingfield, &c. those papers. In June of this year, In September 1752, he married Miss he accompanied Lord Bath to Spa, Dorothy Pershouse, sister of Richard where he became acquainted with the Pershouse, of Reynold-hall, near Wal- Hereditary Prince of Brunswick (the sall, in Staffordshire, and within thiee late Duke), from whom he received months became a widower. In 1755, marked and particular atiention, and he wrote a pamphlet, intitled “An with whom he was afterwards in corApology for the Clergy," against the respondence. It is known that within Hutchinsonians, Methodists, &c.; and a few years there existed a series of shortly afterwards another pamphlet, letters written by him during his stay intitled “ The Destruction of the at Spa, and also a book containing French foietold by Ezekiel," against copies of all the letters which he had the same sects, being an ironical de- written to, and received from, thie fence of them against the attack made Prince of Brunswick, on the state of on them in the former pam blet. In parties, and the characters of their the autumn of 1756, he published a leaders in this country, and on the pamphlet, intitled “A se ivus Defence policy and effect of its continental of the Administration,” being an iro. connexions; but as these have not nical justification of their introducing been found among his papers, there is foreign troops to defend this country. reason to apprehend that they may In the Easter Term of 1758, he took have been destroyed, in consideration

of some of the persons being still that body. In 1786 he was elected alive, whose characters, conduc', and one of the Vice Presidents of the principles were the topics of that cor- Society of Antiquaries, and framed respondence. On the death of Lord their Addresses on the King's Recove. Bath, in 1764, he left Dr. Douglas ry, 1789, both to his Majesty and the his library; but General Puiteney Queen. in March 1757, he was wishing that it should not be removed elected one of the Trustees of the from Bath-house, he relinquished his British Museum, and in 1789 preached claim, and accepted 1000l. in lieu of before the tłouse of Lords, and of it; General Pulteney, at his death, course published the serinon on the left it to him again, and he gave it up anniversary of king Charles's Mara second time to the late Sir William tyrdom. in 1793, he preached the Pulteney for the same sum. It has anniversary sermon before the So. been erroneously stated, that the va- ciety for the Propagation of the luable library of which he was pos- Gospel, which is published and prese:sed had been derived from this fixed to the annual account of their source, whereas it had been entirely proceedings. During a great part of collected by himself. `In this year he his life he was in correspondence with exchanged his livings in Shropshire some of the most eminent literary and for that of St. Austin's and St. Faith, political characters of the age. Few in Watling-street, London. In April could have read more, if indeed any 1765, he married Miss Elizabeth one so much, as with such habits of Rooke, daughter of Henry Brudenell incessant application as those in Rooke, esq. During this and the which he persevered almost to the preceding year, as well as in 1768, last hour of his long-protracted life, he wiote several political papers, he must necessarily have read. In which were printed in the “ Public the strictest sense of the expression, Advertiser," and all the letters wbich he never let one minute pass unimappeared in that paper in 1770 and proved; for he never deemed any 1771, under the signatures of Tacitus space of time too short to be emand Manlius, were written by him. ployed in reading; nor was he ever In 1779, he assisted Sir John Dal- seen by any of his family, when not in tymple in the arrangement of his ma- company with strangers, without nuscripts, and in 1777 he assisted having a book or a pen in his hand. Lord Hardwicke in arranging and After a life thus devoted to the cause publishing his " Miscellaneous Pa- of literature and religion, and not pers," which came out in the follow- spent in solitary seclusion from the ing year. In 1778, he was elected a world, but in the midst of its most acMember of the Royal and Antiquarian tive and busy scenes, he died on the Societies, and in 1781 was chosen isth of May without a struggle, and President of Sion-college for the year, without a pang, in the arms of his and preached the Latin sermon before son.

em

THE

STATE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS. THE emperor of France, the

advantage such a conference will re. peror of Russia, and the king of dound. If to this is added, that the Prussia, have been dining with each one was born to an imperial throne, other. The intimacy between the the other ascended one by his own two former of these sovereigns com- efforts, his own genius, his own tamenced on a raft in the middle of a lents, aided by the circumstances of river, on the banks of which stood thc the times, the scale will preponderate imperial forces, and were witnesses in favour of him who is the founder to the imperial conference. When cf a family against him, who is one two men are conferring together on merely of a family lovg cradled the footing of equality, and one is in notions of imperial dignity; and if, known to have a manifest superiority it is farther added, that the purplein genius and talents, and when great born emperor has been well beat by results are to issue from the confe- the emperor brought up in the swad. rence, it cannot be doubted to“whose dling-clothes of poverty, and a very

humble station in life, a tolerably the imperial conqueror. Both parties good idea may be formed of this iin separated well pleased with each other; perial conference.

and tiom this commencement of acBonaparte had given a sound drub- quaintance a solid friend-hip, such as bing to the emperor of Russia. He is wont to subsist between sovereigns, had not as yet set foot on the Russian has been formed. The imperial maborders, but he was near to them: he jesty of Prussia is well known to have had driven a king from his palace, and an attachment for the house of Prusthe magnanimous Alexander began to sia: he could not do otherwise than dread, that if the French once set intercede for the falien sovereign. foot within bis proper domains, they Ternis were agreed upon, and the would fix a new dynasty on the impe: magnanimous Russian took his brorial thrones of Petersburgh and Mos- ther of Prussia to dine with the emcow. The power of the northern bar- peror of France. The queen of barians has been tried. We cannot Prussia was not of the party. The as Englishmen but regret that they maynanimous Russian would give have not made a better stand: the in- her a full account of the dinner. habitants of the continent of Europe It was a very different day from that cannot but rejoice that the horiid which the magnanimous Russian spent horde of Russians, of Tartars, of kal- with his brother of Prussia over the mucks, have received a lesson in ci- manes of the great frederic: they no vilisation, and are found incapable of longer talked of the ease with which resisting the South of Europe, when they would drive the French to the well disciplined and properly con- extremity of the earth. They now ducted. These barbarians have been sat in company with one who is greater entertained by the French. They have by far than ihe great Frederic ever been first well beat by them, and then was; they bowed to the influence of had a specimen of the ditterence after superior talents, superior industry, a battle between a freeman and a and superior power. slave.

Duke Constantine was among these The imperial majesties of France sovereigns, if not at the dinner, yet and Russia had a long conference on in the evening; and something good the raft. What was the subject of will be the result to this expectant on this conference? This will not be royalty. It is even said, that he may further known than from the general go to the city from wliose founder he result, which was peace; and the takes liis name, and Constantinople magnanimous emperor of Russia will may exchange its barbarous governprobably enter into all the views of ment for one a step beyond it in cithe emperor of France. Bonaparte vilisation. No one can as yet ascerdid not probably tell him that this tain the precise grounds of the treaty event was to have been expected-1 of peace, but the restoration of the assured your majesty that you must Prussian king to part of his dominions be beat-but he would take things, as seems certain. The imperial and they were, and press upon the impe- royal personages are to make a visit rial mind the necessity of peace for to Berlin, and it cannot be supposed the sake of bleeding humanity; he that the Prussian king would be per. would lament the necessity he had mitted to be of the party merely to been under to enter into a war so op- mortify him with a view of his past posite to his feelings; he would expa. grandeur. He will be again a king; tiate on the advantages of a good a king indeed only in name, for he understanding between Russia and must always obey the commands of France, and would not fail to expa- his lord paramount. tiate on the tyrannical power of Eng Such are the strange events which land on the scas, and the gain to take place in this changeable world; Europe if the islanders were excluded and strange as we may call them, from its shores.

these and many similar ones, to take The imperial majesty of Russia place in future history, will not beat having been well beat, would listen wisdom into the human race. Who with coolness to all these arguments, would have thought it, would Mr. would enter easily into the views of Burke say could he arise from the

dead; who would have thought it, the all-conquering arms of France. might one of his w:etched admirers The battle was fought on the anni. Dow say, that France, which was versary of the day of the battle of blotted out of the map of Europe, Marengo; and this circumstance Boshould give law to the whole conti- naparte knew how to turn to a proper Deut! France, sunk to the ground, advantage. In person on the spot he deprived of its king, its nobility, its could give orders that would be clergy, its lawyers, with nothing on obeyed; and with a well-concerted its surface worthy of notice, has beat plan he could have no doubt that his emperors and kings-has done more efforts would be crowned with success. in the short space of a year, under a The English papers, that were so exman whom nobody knew, than she tremely angry at the French army not performed with the best born nobles going post-haste from the battle of during the long life of the great Louis Jena to Petersburgh, will now prothe Fourteenth. If it were possible hably be satisfied, that Bonaparte unfor man to derive instruction from derstands the art of fighting as well at such an example, they would learn least as themselves; and perhaps they that dations are not easily conquered, will find that he is as well skilled in if they have not first conquered them- the affairs of the cabinet as those of selves; that when they rouse and the field. He had gained his point, shake themselves, it is terrible as the secured completely his conquests in rage of a lion. The wretched, puny, Prussia and Poland, and humbled weak, effeminate, insignificant Bond- completely the pride of Russia. To street loungers, by whatever titles press upon the routed enemy could be they may be decorated, the whole attended with little advantage, commass of fashionables may be shocked pared with the benefits resulting from at the rudeness of these proceedings; an ascendancy over the mind of the yet there is an energy of man from magnanimous Alexander.

The arwithin, which, when once properly inistice proposed was instantly agreed stimulated, will break through all the to. Already plans are divulged of chains and barriers forged by vice, by new kingdoms io be formed, and the peculation, by corruption.

imperial house of Bonaparte will conFriedland will be renowned in his- descend to mix its blood with that of tory for its battle, and Tilsit for its some of the royal and imperial houses peace. The battle was bloody, but of Europe. soon over. The defeat of the Russians Prussia will most probably lose its was complete. After the taking of territories in Westphalia, and if it is Dantzic, the Russians must fight, or permitted to retain Prussia Proper lose Konigsburgh. They scarcely and Prussian Poland, it must thank knew what to do, whether to fight or the generosity of the conqueror. If to retreat; to retreat to take a better Silesia should be added, it will have position for fighting. Bonaparte put lost much less in the conflict than it an end to their wavering councils by really merited. Denmark has a dif. an attack, which put an end to all fu- ferent part to act. It has hitherto ture attempts on their part to resist been neutral, but it does not look him out of their territories. The with a favourable eye on England. battle was won by an attack upon the A portion of Westphalia may be a centre, whilst the attention of the temptation to a court, which has hiRussians was taken up with the attack therto conducted itself with more on the wings. A tremendous fire of wisdom than any court in Europe. artillery, supported by the reserve of If she declares for Bonaparte, wc the French army, poured down upon shall be put into a very disagreeable the centre, and in less than an hour, situation, and before this comes from some say forty minutes, the whole the press, the question will probably Russian army was completely routed. have been decided. They fled in every direction. Thirty The chivalrous king of Sweden was thousand were killed or wounded or determined to break another lance taken prisoners. The fate of the war with one of the French generals. Just was determined, and an armistice pro. before the battle of friedland he deposed by the Russians proved how clared the armistice, which he had completely unable they were to resist sanctioned, to be at an end. The

event of that battle will check bis ar- only, that once a brare people lived dour, and the loss of bis Gerwan do- on it, but from want of that si iit and minions will teach him better manners. energy, that true rational liberty inThe sailing of an expedition from spires, it lost its liberty, its independEngland put him probably into good ence, its wealth, and its conımerce. spirits; and he calculated that, with The battle of Friediand, and its twenty thousand English joined to his consequences, absorbs the whole atten. own troops, he should fall upon the tion of the politicalworld. A revolution French army just as they had been in Turkey can scarcely attract notice. defeated by the Russians, and thus Sultan Selim is deposed, and Sultan put an end to the career of Bonaparte. Mustajuba is placed on his throne. Unfortunate king of chivalry! Thy They do these things with great ease dominions await the doom of the im- in Turkey: but every thing is carried perial conference on the ratt! The on with due solemnity. li is not as it troops we sent have not, we fear, was in Russia, when a set of nobles reached the destined port. The re- bursted upon the midnight privacy of turn of the English we should gladly their sovereign, and strangled him hail; but ifthe German Legion shou d with his neckloth. Due decorum come back to this country, unhappy in- was observed among the Turks. They deed is our lot. We are unfortunate first paid their compliments to the every way by the battle of Friedlaud. If Grand Mufti, or sacred high chancel. the German Legion could but land in lor and priest of the empire, and humGermany, let them be only a week in bly request his fetwa or licence, to the country, and march fifty iniles depose their sovereign. In those into it, we should not despair of their countries, which are under a despotic proving themselves worthy to face government, they do not understand the guards of the new kings of their the doctrine, that princes cannot be country.

deposed by their subjects. On the But a great scene opens to us, as far contrary, they have a regular process as this country is concerned. Bona- for doing it; and having obtained the parte has now the complete command fetiva of the Grand Mufti, every of the Baltic, and this summer may thing went on in as easy a train as shew the fleets of Sweden, Den- when a writ is obtained in this counmark, and Russia, aiding in the trans- try from the sheritt for imprisoning an port of his troops. Tie will not attack unfortunate debtor. us from Boulogne, but he may from In the interim, however, the cabithe Baltic. Such an event is by no net council were summoned, and they means improbable.

How are

we endeavoured 10 avert the blow. They guarded against it! Our fleets may cut off the heads of some it' the prinnot be able to protect every point, and cipal officers of state, arwi sent them this mighty conqueror cannot be to the insurgents; but this would not defeated by talk. He must be re- do; they were obstinately bent on sisted by the whole force of the their purpose, and intimated to the country. An armed nation can alone sovereign, that be inust exchange tbe defend us; and the nation must seraglio fo a private palace. Ile, not only be ariied, but disciplined. whose word a few hours before was Idlc martinets will not do in these the law, obeved the command of liis times. Eflicacious soldiers and effi- subjects, entered the palace, and in a cacious generals must come forward, few days ended his life. So short is The time is coming, when the nation the passage in despotic countries inust shew its prowess; and, if it is from the throne to the grave. The defeated by the conqueror, no one can new sovereign was installed with great deny, that it richly deserves every ca- pomp, and from having been a priso lamity that the conqueror can inflict. ner, was invested with supreme authoWe have had sufficient time for pre- rity. paration; and if the English nation is Pretexts are easily found in desposo lost, that it cannot act as well upon tic countries for dethroning a mnoland as its brave defenders have upon parch. For, how can despotism act, sea, the glory of this island Diust sink without giving just cause of ollence, for ever; and it will be remembered and no intervening body being be

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