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Thebes had a hundred gates and could fectation of learning, and shew, with send fourth 10,000 armed men at the absurd parade of a scholar, the each; if I krow that Semiramis use they have made of their own crossed the Indus, or that Sardanapa- utensils. Greek! Greek! Latin ! Jus was a weak and erreminate king, Latin! that's their acropolis, that's and the last of the Assyrian inonar- their bulwark; that's their defence; chy; that the grandeur of Nineveh and that they imagine is to be a gag perished with his talling fortunes; it of silence upon unlettered reasoners, I know all this, what does it matter to strike them with awe, to strike whether I have learnt it in Greek or them wiih humility and submission, English? The Grecian or the Latinist They complain, that they find a ditmay tell me, you have lost the beau- ficulty, in understanding words de. ties of the original, you have lost all rived from the Greek and Latin; that that indefinable grace which cannot they confound their significations; be transfused into a foreign language, that they never have clear ideas of the harmony of periods, the charins them. All this may be so;, and if it of antithesis bare totally escaped you; le so, I am not bound to shew the though he should tell me this, and reason why it is so, though there probably what he tells me would be needs “ no ghost come from the grave true, yet I would reply that my know- to tell us." But I will maintain, that ledge, niy useful, iny substantial a man of common sense may bave as knowledge, was not one whit inferior accurate an idea of a vocablé derived to his: I am prepared to draw all the from the Learned Languages, as it results which my reason can draw, is used in our own, as he wlio knows and that is the knowledge of reflec- its radix. I say, as it is USED IN OUR tion. I will illustrate this from ex- own; for the stability of a language ample. A linguist reads in Tacitus is or ought to be such, as to preclude obtrectatio et livorpronis auribus nieci- innovation; and although I may piuntur: an unlettered man reads know that a certain word bears a mulenvy and detruction are willingly re- tiplicity of significations in its original, ceived: tbe former, reads m Seneca, yet I am bound to use it, not accordo curæ leves (oquuntur, ingentes stu- ing to those primitive signit:cations, pent; the latter, light sorrou's are but according to its received and legiclamorous, severe ones are dumb; c. timate ones in niy native tongue ; and 6c. and I would ask whether the a man who knows no language but moral truth of the one or the other be his own, may yet acquire his own), in not as pertec:ly possessed, relisbed, the fullest and completest sense of the and understood by both? What is word, by the study of the best writers there so all-commanding in these lan- and the use of the best dictionaries. guages, that our native idiom is to be I have also heard it urged, that studegraded as fit only for transacting dents in anatomy have bad a clearer our daily duties? The miserable affec- idea of the several parts of the human tation of scholars has produced this body, after, they had learned eck blind resignation of our sober facul- than before. But I know, that the ties; scholars, who themselves desti- first surgeon Dow in England, and tute of native powers, seek to en- who resides not far from St. James's, hance the reputation of what they has no more Greek than an Ethiohave acquired, and magnify their own pian; and another medical gentlepursuits ; like the canner, the sione- man, a friend of mine, who has risen mason, and the carpenter in the fa- to the top of his profession, knows no ble, who were for having respectively language but his own: and yet I'll the walls of their town made of lea- answer for it, he would amputate a ther, stone, and wood.—But there is limb, or perform an operation, with another advantage which the advo- as nzuch skill and success as a Greek cates in support of the Learned Lan- surgeon; nay, he has ofien succeeded guages mantain; viz. that the know- in delicate cases, which the first proledge of our own is wonderfully im- fessional men have declined as hope. proved by them. This, in futvily, far less. But in good truth, such jargon iranscends the other. They entrench can only be tolerable in the mouth of themselves behind the wretched at- a mere scholar, who possesses not one

CÆSAR.

tittle of native genius, and who erects tongue, which, God help them ! they his self-sufficiency simply and solely may have been learning thirty or torty upon the plodding diligence with years by telling them “ you don't which he has turned over dictionaries know Greek; you don't know Latin; and grammars. The knowledge of ergo, you know nothing, not even languages is certainly an ornament English. Sir, it is impossible that you to the edifice of genius; but when can understand the meaning of synecthey exist solitary in a barren mind, doche, sycopa, metaphrase, misogamist, which produces not one indigenous misogomy, for you don't know Greek!" plant, which merely bears, and that I smile when I think of such lannot in a very flourishing manner, guage, and pity those who use it. whatever is transplanted into it, i

I remain. Sir, &c. then look upon them as a very hum

ATTALUS. ble sort of merit indeed. They can Liverpool, November 23, 1807. aspire no higher than to the poor applause of successfud diligence; a dili

The BEE.-No. VI. gence in which every man cán be- Floriferis ut apes in saltibus omnia libaot, come their competitor, and many bear

omnia nos.

LUCRETICS. away the laurel. It requires just the same temper of feeling by which the TERRITA quesitis ostendat terga woodman "fells a tree, or the hedger

Britannis, says Lucan, (lib ii. excavates a ditch; they know that line 572), who, though a Pompeian, their strokes constantly repeated will always does justice to Cæsar's bravery at length produce the desired effect. on every other occasion; and indeed The linguist also knows that a heavy the above seems strongly confirmed and inflexible perseverance must ulti- by the elegant historian himself in his mately bring him to an end, and im- relation of his expedition here. It print upon his mind the vocables of will not need the partiality of a Briton the language he is studying: But to incline him to believe there was when we compare this humble merit more of truth than party in the poet's with the higher occupations of the reflection ; since, if it were otherwise, mind, when we compare it with the it is hard to assign a good reason why flights of fancy, the daring combina- the supposed conqueror, so soon after tions of genius, the sublime pictures his arrival here, should weigh anchor of imagination, when we compare it and steal off in the middle of the with the successful investigation of night, (Cæsar de Bell. Gall. 1. 4.c.28.) moral truth, the discoveries of science after a battle, or why he should bring by which life is rendered happier and with him in his second expedition our ideas of the Creator expanded; above 700 ships more than in his when we compare it with almost any

first. of the native energies of intellect, how

PICTURESQUE. poor, how despicably mean it sinks; This word is derived from the Italian give them their due praise ; assign Pittoresco, which, literally rendered, them their just rank; and in their would be painterish; and it may be own minds let them estimate them as observed, that our ish, the Teutonic highly as they please ; but let them isc, the Italian esco, and the Greek not sink into the common and dis- ixos, are all of one family. gusting error of making the learned languages every thing, and every thing Early to bed and early to rise, else nothing; let them not place Greek Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise. and Latin as the boundary between all The truth of this old proverbial that is great and wonderful and lovely, couplet appears to have been sensibly and what is poor, unworthy and dis- felt by this celebrated naturalist. It graceful: let them estimate truly what was not without the greatest difficulty they have, and they will then find that he acquired the habit of rising that words do not always give know- with the sun. He thus relates the ledge; let them not come forth with circumstance. a magisterial air and a vain parade of “ In my youth, I was very fond of learning, to frighten plain, well- sleep, which robbed me of much meaning men out of their mother time. My poor Joseph (a domestic

BUFFON.

my

the Irish par..

who served him sixty-five years) was footed and tired, she one day sat down of great utility to me in overcoming on a bench by the side of a countryit. I promised him a crown every woman, who did not know the queen, morning he could make me rise by and requested her to tell the cause of six o'clock. He failed not next day her pilgrimage. On being informed, to torment me--) abused him. He she replied, "O my dear madam, it came the morning following - I is all in vain! Our rosy canon has threatened him. Friend Joseph, said been dead for these two months.” I to bim in the evening, you have

PRINCE OF CONDE. gained nothing, and I have lost my A little time before the memorable time. You don't know how to manage battle of Rocroi a council of war was the matter--think on my promise, and called, at which the necessity of posnever mind my threatenings. The sessing the town was powerfully reday following he accomplished his presented : ! But what shall we do,” point--I begged, entreated, then said one of the generals, “ if we lose abused, and would have turned him it?" I do not consider that,” exoff. He raised me by absolute force, claimed the Prince of Condé; and had his reward every day for my death will happen long before that.'' ill-humour in the moment of waking by thanks and a crown an hour after; A Review of the POLITICAL CON. indeed I owe to poor Joseph at least NECTION between ENGLAND and ten or twelve volumes of my works.” IRELAND. DUKE OF GUISE.

(Concluded from p. 393.) Greatness of mind and cool genuine

T:

THE momentous business of the courage was strikingly exemplified in

regency first

gave the following conduct of the Duke liament an opportunity, of exercising of Guise :--Some little wbile before its novel authority. In this instance, to he was murdered by the order of the great surprise of ministry, the senHenry the 3d, a note was brought to timents of Ireland, as expressed by her him intimating the king's intention. representatives, were directly oppoTaking out his pencil, he wrote under site to those of England, promulgated with great coolness, “ He dares not;" through the same channel. In spite and then went on with his dinner, as of every effort of the lord-lieutenant if nothing had happened, and attende toward procuring an adjournment, ed the monarch's levee the next the court was left in a minority of morning with the same confidence as fifty-four ! usual. Too late be found the melan As we studiously avoid all review choly truth of the intelligence. whatever of those scenes of fanati..

cism on one hand, and of massacre on On entering the wood of Boulogne, the other, which have polluted the the Hyde Park of the Parisians, by fertile shores of Hibernia, in the Passy, on the right is the castle or years immediately preceding the great house of la Muette, formerly royal. and final act of political connection It was a seat of the secret pleasures between that country and her potent of Louis XV, whose palled appetite neighbour, little remains for the fide, required a frequent change of mis- lity of the examiner to report. But, tresses, In the village of Passy, a of that little, the major part is far street where Dr. Franklin lived re- from unsatisfactory. tains his name. The medicinal waters In 1793, the appointment of the of Passy are impregnated with iron, vice-treasurers of Ireland was transso 'as to load their course with ochry ferred from the English to the Irish incrustations of a reddish brown co- government, as a counterbalance to lour. They were chiefly frequented the influence added to the crown by by bạrren ladies, and were found some fresh appointments in the East efficacious when administered by India departments. young practitioners. Anne of Au- In 1795, the Irish catholics solicited, stria, having, passed sixteen years at the feet of the throne, a relief from without producing an heir to the all those disqualifications by which French monarchy, went on a solemn, they had been so long oppressed. pilgrimage to all the saints. Bare. According to Grattan, the tithes,

THB ROSY CANON.

with the expense of collection, amount that Charles I. used new and surprisannually to one sixth of the whole pro- ing exertions, when he caused the duce of the island; consequently, Irish exchequer to contain the sum of nine hundred men out of three mil. twenty thousand pounds. As a proad lions, have, every sixth year, the instance of the change of circumwhole rental of the kingdom! To re- stances effected by commercial entermedy this substantial evil, Grattan prise duly encouraged, it is mentioned endeavoured, but unsuccessfully, to that the permanent revenue of freestablish a Modus, and a uniformity land, in 1793, yielded 1,295,285; in of titheable articles throughout the 1794, it yielded 1,381,792 ; and, in whole kingdom. Over this attempt, 1795, nearly a milliou and a half. the protestant ascendancy, in the Her military establishment at this peIrish parliament, prevailed; for the riod might be estimated at about Irish protestants were found most de- 50,000 men. cidedly averse to the participation of Such was the fourishing state of their catholic countrymen in those the commercial interests in this religious freedoms which themselves island, in the years directly prereding enjoyed. The appeal to the crown, the period at which a union was et. which succeeded this disappointment, fected between the two sister countries. was scarcely lesg unfortunate. The We feel persuaded that the reader art of Mr. Pitt however contrived to will concur in noting on the whole a throw all the odium of the rejection more rational spirit of fellowship to on the Irish legislative party, by ad- have manifested itself, in our devising the king to countenance the meanor towards Ireland, in the course application, and commit it to the con- of the last half century. Unwilling sideration of the Irish parliament. to ascribe this improved temper to tbe By that assembly, the spirit of the mere discovery of the mercantile rebill was refined to evanescent sub- sources contained by our hibernian tlety :—the only favours possibly con- neighbour, we are solicitous to place ferred on the catholics were, the right it to the account of an increase of naof intermarrying with protestants, of tional urbanity and good sense. Our taking apprentices, of pleading as bar- urbanity must unavoidably excite as risters, and of keeping schools. more forcibly, in each fresh day, to

While the scowling clouds of reli- acts of friendly interchange with a gious bigotry, joined to the selfish people who would restrain us only views and unfounded apprehensions from an ascendancy in the walks of of the ambitious and overbearing, wit, worth, and science : while to have thus successfully preserved a cruel badge of distinction between vernment were 26,0001.; of which man and man, and prevented the

20,000l. were received from Eng. whole population of Ireland from as

land; Ireland furnished the remainsimilating into one uniform and har

ing six. monious mass, it is highly grateful to The lord-deputy and other principal note the stupendous etfects of the en officers were allowed, per annum, lightened spirit which has latterly 3,6661. animated the commercial intercourse The lord chancellor, "and other infebetween the two countries. Our read.

rior officers," 10001. er has long seen the revenue of Ire- Eight hundred horsemen, “with their Jand quite insufficient to the main captaines, petie captaines," &c. tenance of its military and legislative 6,022. 10s. sterling. establishinents;* and has been told Seven hundred footmen, with cap

taines, &c. 7,3-15). 198, 6d. From a curious note of instruc By which it appears that the militions, conveyed by Queen Elizabeth tary establishment of that year was to Sir Henry sidney, her deputy, we only 1500 men; and, it is curious !0 learn the foljowing particulars, rela- observe, that the infantry were much tive to the establishment and legisla- more expensive than the Cavalry: a tive expenses of Ireland in the year circunstance most likely owing to the 1575:

expense of their musquets auru ammuThe gross expenses of the Irislı go- nition.

good sense our government can never &c.;" consequently it is no authority Tay the slightest claim, when it uses for the word breast. any other than gentle means with While upon this subject of lanmen who are found, in every period guage, I will trouble you with one or of their history, inflexible as the rocks two desultory remarks upon etymo.' of their own coast to the grasp of op- logy: pression, but ductile as the soil of Žigzag. This word is not in Johntheir native island to the open hand son at all; and in those lexicons which of tenderness and generosity:

have it, I find no etymon. It is de

rived from the German zickzack. On Dr.Johnson's DictIONARY, &c. derived from the German Quetsche,

Quash. This word I consider to be SIR,

rather than the Latin Quasso, or the I N the course of a frequent recur

Italian Squacciare. rence to Johnson's Dictionary, many casual observations and correc. the Greek, founding it merely upon

Dream, Casaubon derives this from me, a few of which I now send for fancitul similitude : may it not proyour judgment, and should they be ceed from the German Traum

? The inserted I shall be tempted to occupy sarily follow the difference of pronun

change of orthography would necesa column in your Magazine on future occasions.

ciation. Upon referring back to the In his preface, Dr. Johnson says, Magazine for September, p. 226, by

learned and ingenious paper in your speaking of the authorities upon the Rev. Mr. Townsend, on the which he grounded his interpretations

" Mutual Affinities of the German of words, that his purpose was to ad. Language, &c." I find that he is of mit no testimony of living authors; the same opinion; for traum is in the yet, strange as it may seem, he has

third class of commutable consonants quoted himself as an authority in his of D for T, &c. examples to the word idler, viz. Idler- A lazy person; a sluggard. verb bevrozen as the etymon of this

Frore. Johnson gives the Dutch Thou sluggish idler! dilatory slave! IRENE, adjective. I am clearly of opinion,

He has quoted More's foundling for however, that it is derived from the the word rattlesnake, though living; German verb Frieren to freeze, the nor could he I believe be ranked preterite of which is fror. among those names, whose admission Splash. The only meaning which “ the tenderness of friendship” soli- Johnson gives to this word, is “ to cited.

daub with dirt in great quantities :" leth ripe are some, and some of later but it surely has another sufficiently kud,

common, viz. to scatter water about, Of golden some, and some of purple rind.” &c.: a boy in the water is said to

Max. splash when he throws it about with These lines are not May's, as John- his arms and legs, without however son here asserts, but Dryden's, in his bedaubing" any one. And, in this translation of Virgil, Georgic II. line sense, as well as the above, I think it 134.

may with more propriety be derived The verb " to pine,” in the first from the German Platschern, rather significations that he gives, is a neu- than the Swedish Plaska. ter, not an active verb, viz.

Plump. This word, Johnson, Skin"I burin, I pine; I perish;

ner, and Junius, have left in darkIf I achieve noi this young, modest girl.” ness as to its etymon; and it is with

SKAKSPEARE. some hesitation that I would venture « The harly Swiss,

to propose the German word Plump, Breast: the keen air, and carols as he goes.” which signifies heavy, coarse, &c.

GOLDSMITH. Yet it appears to me, that the mutaHe surely ought to "have quoted tion to its present meaning is not better the poem which he revised, violent; and there is, I believe, even and to which he made additions. It now, something of coarseness attached should be breathes the keen air, to the idea of a plump man or a plump

UNIVERSAL MAG. VOL. VIII.

3 S

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