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and the nature of their cloathing, the qualities of the things which they producing a sufficient degree of heat, wish to describe. they are satisfied with the shelter af Their ideas of religion are obscure forded by tents made of hides loosely and contracted. They acknowledge thrown together, by the rocky caverns two invisible essences; the one, they of the sea-coast, or by placing them- represent as the origin of good; the selves to the leeward of a bank of other, to whom they pay the most snow. In the caverns they some frequent homage, as that of every times make use of a lamp, formed of species of evil. a large hollow bone, containing a Their canoes are formed with no quantity of oil; but this is only for inconsiderable degree of art, and the convenience of procuring light, much industry appears to be bestowo as they appear to be ignorant of the ed on their construction. They are application of fire to culinary pur- pointed at each extremity, and are poses. The air proceeding from their covered with the skins of sea-animals, lungs is so mephitical and offensive, In the upper part, or deck, is an aper. that two or more of them shut up in ture with a bag affixed to it, through a sinal and close apartment, and thus which the savage introduces his body, excluded from free air, would pro- and tying his mouth around his waist, bably not long survive. It is only of and taking in his hands, a paddle late years that spirituous liquors have which he uses alternately on each been introduced among them; and, side, he shoots through ihe waves, notwithstanding the severe cold of' by which he is tosse:1 and buffited, their climate, a quantity of rum re- whilst the water is unable to penemained for a considerable time in the trate the slender vessel in which he possession of one of their chiefs, be- rides. fore any of these natives would hazard Newfoundland extends in the form an experiment of its effects. Fortunate of a triangle, about a hundred leagues had it been for them if they still con- from east to west, and a hundred and tinued in ignorance of that liquor, twenty-five from north to south; which bas proved so baneful to a great being situated between 46 and 52 deportion of the uncivilized inhabitants grees of north latitule. John Gabato, of America!
a Venetian, was its first discoverer, The instruments which they use for under the patronage of king Henry the chase, and in fishing, are con- the Seventh of England. No advanstructed with much neatness and in- tage was derived from thence, until genuity. Their bows are composed the lapse of a period of near forty of tbree pieces of pine, or larch-tree, years. Cape Race, and Cape Ray, which being neither strong nor very are the two promontories which preelastic, these defects are remedied by sent themselves to mariners sailing fortifying them behind with a band for the river Saint Lawrence. Eighof deer's tendons, which, when wet- teen leagues to the westward of the ted, contract, and at once commu- first, appears Cape Saint Mary, which dicate elasticity and force. Ever since forms the entrance of the bay of Plathey have been visited by Europeans, centia towards the east. This bay is they have given a preterence to the sixteen leagues in breadth, and twenty fusil; and whenever that instrument in depth. Towards its head is the can be procured, the bow falls into harbour, capable of containing in disuse.
safet; 150 vessels, and defended by Like all other men in the savage a fort called Saint Louis. The French state, they treat their wives with great were the first Europeans who frecoldness and neglect; but their affec- quented this situation. Between Plation towards their oftspring is lively centia and Cape Ray, the western and tender, Their language is gut- point of the island, two other bays, tural, and cortains but few words; of considerable extent, penetrate soine so that they express new ideas, or distance into the country. They are give names to novel objects, by a distinguished by the appellations of combination of terms, indicative of Fortune and Despair.“ No settle-
ments have yet been made on their is crowned with a battery, constreet. coasts, and they are but little fre- ed under the direction of the le quented, Cape Ray, togeiher with Sir James Wallace, who, in 1740, the island of Saint Paul, about fifteen was vice-admiral on the station, and leagues distant from it, fornis the en- governor of the island, and in a trauce into the gulph of Saint Law'- fifty-gun ship, two frigates, and to rence; and vessels sailing thither, sloops of sixieen guns each, 13 e a nust pass, in clear weather, in sight of gallant and successful detenié au inisi the one or the other. Besides the the attacks of Admiral Richery, bays already noticed, this island con- force consisted of mereu ships of ihe tains a variety of others, particularly line, and three frig.ites. on the eastern coast, among which Viewed from the summit of this two are remarkable for their extent; eminence, the town, and the cat. those of Trinity and Concep:ion.- folds on which the fish are placed in Near the latter is the harbour of dry, present a singular appearance. Saint Jolu, which is secure and well Thiese scattolds are generally torty tortified
feet high, and consist of several stages, Bordered by dark and gloomy rocks, on the rafters of each of which a cuanwhich exhibit a barren, inbospitable tity of brushwood is placed. They appearance, the country, on a nearer are sufficiently strong to support lie view of its soil, belies not the cha- weight of the green fish, and alsı, racter of its rude uninviting features, occasionally, of one or two mra. which, amid their nakedness, display These are elected in every sinaneither grandeur nor sublimity. At tion, as well in the vallies, as on a lezgue distant from the entrance of the margins of the perpendicular Saint John's harbour, no opening in rocks. the coast is discernible. A wbite The town of Saint John borders on tower, raised on a precipitous emi- the basin, and its situation affords no mence, seems rather intended as a attractions, except to those whom inmark to warn vessels of the danger terest or necessity induces to consult of approaching the rocky shore, than the advantage, rather than the pita: as a diacou to conduct them to a sure, arising from diversity of local place of safety. On a nearer exami- situation. It contains a church and uation of it, its strength becomes ap- two chapels, one for the caiholic reparent, and no hostile vessel can en- ligion, the others for persons of the ter, with impunity, the narrow chasm methodist-persuasion; also a courtbeneath. This struciure, situated on house, and a custom-house, a part of the precipice, on the south An officer of the customs was, unside of the entrance of Saint John, is til lately, placed at the head of the named Fort Amhersi. The inlet, law department, and decided not only called the Narrows, exceeds not five in civil, but in criminal causes. Á hurdied feet in width. On each gentleman who has been bred at the side, towards the north, the rocks bar, at present fills the station of judge rise to the altitude of four hundred of the island. The buildings are meal, teet; but on the south shore, they and the streeis narrow and dirty – are of less elevation.
Fort Townshend is placed above the Heail, juniper, and wild spruce, town, and contairs the house allotted the otispring of sterility, sparingly for the governor, with the store-houses cover the rocky surface. The ap- and magazines, which form a square'
. pearance of the larbour and its en- From bence, the entrance, the harvirons, is, nevertheless, wild and bour, the narrows sunk between de. picture-que. In proceeding fur- vated precipices; and the water, cother up ihe inlet, a batiery, called vered with small vessels, passing and Suut Fort, is placeri on the left; and re-passivg, form a very lively and another, named Chain-rock, on the busy scene; these, together with the right. At a considerable elevation town, and the adjacent country, diabove these, several little forts are versified by lakes and verdant Lora seen. A rock, in the form of a cone, ders, exhibit, in the midst of a barren
DUIDIUS IN REPLY TO ATTALUS.
wild, a combination which may, for interior is composed of mountains, a sliort period, afford the charms of covered with woods of an indifferent novelty.
quality. The animals found here, Over a place called the Barrens, is are foxes, porcupines, hares, squirrels, a road which leads trom Fort Town- lynxes, otters, bearers, wolves, and shend to Fort William, commanding bears. The chace is dificult, and the narrows and the barbour. With unattended with profit. The land. the latter, Signal-hill, frum whence and water fowl are, partridges, snipes, the approach of ships is announced, woodcocks, falcons, geese, ducks, communicates. Its perpendicular and penguins. In the bays and height from the sea, is tour bundred rivers are found fish of various kinds, and tour teet; and it contains, on its such as salmon, eels, herring, macksummit, two ponds, affording excel- arel, plaice, trout, and alınost every leni water.
description of shell tish. The bay of Bulls lies about twentyeighi miles from Sint John's. The internal parts of the island have never yet been esplored by the English.
Sir, Avery small portion of land is at present cultivated, as neither the soil nor
LLOW me to embrace the opclimate are favouable to productions
portunity of sketching a brief necessary for the support of life. reply to the ob-ervations of Attalus. The dura ion of summer is too short; Strict candour would have perhaps and no kind of grain has sufficient required him to impuie my want of time to arrive at maturity. The comprehension,” not to ignorance winter breiks up in May: and, until of the subject which I attempted to the end of September, tlie air is tem- discuss, but of the censure which he perite, during which the progress of consequently desired to fix upon an vegetation is sufficiently rapid. Hay admired Roman author; and this senand
grass are here of a very inditte timent was the basis of the controrent quality. The land is so sparing. versy on my part, althongh, I hope, ly covered with soil, that much lrbour egally free with Attalus himself, and expence are necessary to produce from blind adoration to every thing a crop, which but poorly recompences Greek and Latin." the industry of the husbandman. Since the text has been twice tranThe quantiiy of ground used for the scribed I need scarcely here repeat it: purposes or cultivation, is therefore but your correspondent and myself very small; and the prohibition of appear to agree that, in the disputed the parent state against attempts to passage (excepting, in my opinion, colonize, are, by ihe sterile nature the final clause) a strong antithesis is of the country, rendered almost un- intended, and that qualities are
The fisherinen are, in attributed to each which cannot times of warfare, enjoined to return without incongruity be given to the to England; and the merchant is au- other." thorised, to retain from the wages
Proceeding, therefore, to the point of each person in his employ, a cer- in question," Attalus as-erts that in tain proportion as a provision, in case the perfugium miseris and pernicies of incapacity from poverty or sick- malis respectively indicating Cæsar ness, for any individual to return to and Cato, " the attributes are collhis
country. By this prudent regu- vertible,” as the one would be others Jation, no seaman, thus engaged, can wise," weak but not good,” and be lost to the service of the state. the other “a dæmon in lieu of a
The English and French long man." shared between them, the privilege Bot, Sir, the quere naturally arises of drying their fish on the coasts of whether or not they be consistently this island; the latter occupying the convertible? That Cato must bave southern and northern parts, and the possessed a degree of humanity, and former the eastern shores. The Cesar of justice, no one can feel in
clined to deny : but could humanity of the following lines, in Gray's have been the distinguishing feature “ Elegy in a Country Church-yard." in Cato's character, and rigid justice in that of Cæsar, without evident con
“Oft did the harvest to iheir sickle yield, tradiction of the preceding sentences; Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has for this circumstance is necessary, in
broke; order to justify the strong assertion of How jocund did they drive their team my antagonist.
afield! That it was not the intention of How bow'd the woods beneath their sturdy Sallust to continue the antithesis in
stroke." the concluding period, will be readily inferred, if we consider that, while The meaning of the second line of either of the heroes is approaching the this stanza, is to me highly obscure, Temple of Fame, he is naturally de. The word furrow signifies a small scribed as the possessor of qualities trench made by the plough for the which refuse to harmonize in any reception of the seed; but in this degree with those of the other; but sense the line is absurd. I obsere, having once attained his proper sta- however, that Mr. Park, in his edition, we no longer await this marked tion of the Poets, has solved the difopposition, but a natural deduction ficulty in a manner not very much froin that which is already known to like a scholar or a commentator; be us.
quietly substitutes the word harrow. The bent, which is naturally im. At first sight, indeed, this would appressed upon our minds from a view pear an easy solution of the difficulty, of the different parties, is, that Cato but I am led to believe that ihe would be chiefly remarkable for jus- word furrow has some local or tice, and Cæsar for humanity : but provincial signification, that would none of the other qualities ascribed to render its use in the above line either party is inconsistent with a cer- legitimate. tain and laudable degree of the lead I remember to have seen this same ing virtue that is ascribed to his oppo- question started some years back in one nent; although its existence, in a con- of our periodical miscellanies, and the spicuous degree, would bave been answer given by a correspondent, was totally incompatible with the rest such as warranted my conjecture, of his character, which would in though I cannot now recollect it disthis case have been eclipsed by tinctly, for if I did, I should of course it.
have no reason to request it at present I am, however, sensible, Mr. Edi- from some of your numerous readers. tor, that we debate on a mere differ- In reading Mr. Thornton's late public ence of taste; and de gustibus, &c.- cation upon Turkey, the other day, I “the proverb is something musty:" perceived that he also used the word but as the distinctions, which I have furrow, when speaking of the state of endeavoured to lay down, appear to agriculture among the Turks, in the have hitherto escaped the considera- same sense as Gray, and I regret, tion of Attalus, if he will supply me that not having the book by me, I with a satisfactory avswer, his opinion can neither quote the passage nor rewill be, without hesitation, assented fer to the page. to by
I shall be very happy to have this Duidius.
matter explained, that future editors Tower Hill, Nov. 17, 1807.
may not copy Mr. Park's injudicious proceeding, and alter an author's ex.
pression according to the arbitrary ON A PASSAGE in “GRAY'S ELEGY." suggestions of their own minds; and
I remain, Sir,
H. G. SHALL feel much indebted to any I
of your readers if they can satis- Bath, Nov. 16, 1807. factorily explain to me the meaning
1907.) Letter XIII.-- On the Management of the Poor (concluded.) 393 LETTER XIII.—On the Management have constructed the following table
of the Affairs of the Poor. from authentic documents, which [Concluded from page 299.)
shews at one view the population of
the towns in six counties, and of as IN ;
have never attended to this sub- and of the number of artificers, maject, that our poor do not all of them nufacturers, and of the poor relieved, consist of innocent and virtuous cot, with the proportion they bear to tagers worn down by hard labour, I each other.