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both ancient and modern, who treat have them mended; so much they of Greece and Judea. These notes, fear to be suspected of wealth and inand those which I have collected on dustry. the places themselves, are the inale. From Modop I went to Coron, sirials which I have anwassed for my tuated in the Messenian gulf. I work; but among the ihings which I crossed tuis gulf; I entered Arcadia have seen, there are some that are by one of the Hermæums of mount perfectly useless to me. Every thing, Lyceu“; I passed by Megalopolis, the for example, relative to the customis work of Epaminondas, anu the counof the modern inhabitants, cannot find try of Philopemen; I arrived at Tria place in my work, because the scene polizza, a new town in the valley of of it i-placed in ancient times. I have Tegeus, at the foot of Menalus. I therefore separated every thing that is returned again to visit Sparta, Taygenot immediately connected with my tus, and the valley of Laconia. From plan, but which may yet be found in- thence I took the road of Aigos ali ng ieresting in a literary point of view, the mountains: I contemplated all

I the public; but I beg that they will of kings: I stopped at Mycena and constantly remember, that it is not a at Corinth. In passing the isi hnus regular voyage which I am detailing, by the Geranian mountains, I saw but only a tew scattered cbservations an. Aga wound a Greek with a and general recoliections.

musket shot, and give him atterI embarked at Trieste, the 1st Aug. wards fifty blows with a stick to cure 1800. We sailed rapidly out of the it. Adriatic Sea. On the oth we disco I descended from Megara and Eleuvered Skerie (Corfou) and Butbrotum, tis: I stayed some time at Athens; which recalled to my mind two of the and biduling at length an eternal adieu finest scenes in the Odyssey and the to the country of the Muses, and of Eneid. We saw the rock of Ithaca. great men, I embarked at Cape SuGladly would I have landed to visit nium for the island of Zea. the garden of Laertes, the cabin of Zea is the ancient Ceos, celebrated Eumeus, and even the place where among the Greeks by the old men the dog ot Ulysses died with joy at who there put themselves to death; seeing his master again.

by Aristæus, whose bees Virgil has We passed the islands of Zantha and sung; by the birth of Simonides and Cephalonia ; and on the 10th, in the of Bacchylides. The gauze of Ceos morning, the mountains of Elide be- becaine celebrated among the Roman gan to appear in the northern horizon. poets, who compared it to zoven uind. On the ultb we cast anchor before I passed trom Zea to l'inos, from TiModon, the ancient Mothon, near Py- nos to Chios, and from Chios to los. I saluted the shores of Greece, Smyrna. I resolved to proceed by and the long boat of the vessel car- land to the plain of Troy. 'I advanced ried me close to the walls of Modon, as far as Pergamos; I traversed the I continued my journey by land. ruins of the palace of Eumenes and

In the Peloponnesus I saw only a Attalus; and I sought in vain for the country a prey to those debauched to:ub of Galen. When I wished to Tartars, who delight in destroying, continue my route, my guide refused not ouly the monuments of civiliza- to go any further, upon prelest, that tion and the arts, but the harvests the passes of Ida were infested with even, the trees, and whole genera- thietes: I was obliged, therefore, to tions. Would it be believed, that take the road for Constaniinople. As th-re are in the world tyrants so mad, the principal object of my voyage was and so savage, as to oppose every kind to visit the holy places, I enquired of amelioration, even in things of the when I arrived ai Pera, if there was utmost importance. A bridge moul- not some vessel in the port for the d.rs away, they never rebuild il; a coast of Syria. I was lai ky enough man repairs his house, they oppress to find one ready to alling, and liim, I have seen Greek captains ex- loaded with Greek pilgums tor Juida. pose themselves to the hazard of ship- I seitted with the coram ; and we wreck, from torn sails, rather than soon set sail for Jerusiem, under the

standard of the cross flying at the other sharp, executing andanie and masis of our vessel.

iezda voce, the octave, the fifths, There were on board this ship near- and the thirds. "The effect of this ly two hundred passengers, men, wo- Kirie is surprizing for its solennity men, children, and old men. There and majesty. It is doubtless a relic of were as many mats ranged in order the ancient singing of the primitie along the two sides of the deck. A church. I suspect the other ps: Imoslip of paper pasted against the side of dy to be that modern singing introthe vessel, indicated ihe name of the duced into tie Greek rituai, towards proprietor of the mat. Each pilgrim the fourth century, and of which St. had suspended from his bolster, his Aligustine had abundant reason to statt, bis chaplet, and a small cross. complain. The chamber of the captain was oc The day after our departure the tecupied by the papas, the conductors ver attacked me again, with great vioof the troop. At the entrance of this lence; and I was obliged to remain chamber they had contrived two sorts upon my mat.

We crossed rapidly of antichambers: I had the honour of the sea of Marmora, and the streight lodging in one of these black holes, of the Dardanelles (the ancient Fro. about six feet square, with my two pontis and Allespont). We passed servants; a family occupied, opposite before the peninsula of Cyzicnm, ard to me, the other apartment. In this the mouth of 0203- Potamos. We sort of republic, every one managed alınost touched the promontories of according to lis liking ; the wo- Sestos and Abydos. “Alexander and men took care of the children: the his army, Xerxes and his feet, the men smoked, or prepared the dinner; Athenians and the Spartans, Hero the papas talked together. On all and Leander, could not cure me of sides were heard the sounds of guitars, the violent head-ache under which I violins, and lyres. They sung, they laboured: but when on the 21st of danced, they laughed, ibey prayed'; September, about six o'clock in the all were joyous. They exclaimed tó morning, they told me that they were me, Jerusalem! pointing towards the about to double the castle of the Darsouth; and I replied, Jerusalem! In danelles, the tever could not resist the fact, were it not for fear, we should recollections of Troy. I dragged my. have been the happiest people in the self upon deck: my first looks were world; but, at the least wind, the directed towards a high promontory, sailors furled the sails, the pilgrims crowned by nine mills; it was cape cried out, Christos! Kirie eleison! Sigeum. At the foot of the cape, I The storm once passed, we resumed saw two tumuli, the tombs of Achil. our boldness.

les and Patroclus. The mouth of the In other respects, I did not perceire Simois was to the left of the new casthat disorder of which travellers have tle of Asia ; further behind us, tospoken: we were, on the contrary, wards the Hellespont, appeared cape very decent, and very correct. Every Rhetium, and the tomb of Ajax. In evening, after our departure, two pa- the bottom, the chain of mount Ida pus said prayers, at which every one reared itselt, the declivities of which, assisted with great earnesiness. They from the spot where I was, appeared blessed the vessel, a ceremony which sott and gentle. Tenedos was before was renewed after every storm. The the prow of the vessel : Est in consinging of the Greek church has con- spectu Tenedos. Glory must surely be siderable sweetness, but not much a reality, since it thus powerfully atgravity. I observed one thing very tacks the heart of a mere observer. singular: a child began a verse of a On the 22d we entered the Arcbipsalm in a shrill tone, and kept it up pelago. We saw Lesbos, Chios, Sain a single note, whilst a papa sang mos, celebrated for its fertility and its the same verse in a different air, and tyrants, and, above all, as the birthen canon, that is, beginning the verse place of Pythagoras. But every thing when the child had already passed the which the poets have said of this middle. They bave also an admirable island, is surpassed by the beautiful Kirre eitison, which is a noie held by episode of Telemachus. We coasted ditferent voices, the one grare, the the shores of Asia, wbere appeared

Doride, and that soft Ionia, which fatbers came on board; and though gave both pleasures and great men to they were Spaniards, and spoke but a Greece. There the Meander wound very indifferent lialian, yet we shook along; there Ephesus, Miletus, Hali- each other by the hand as if we were carnassus, Gnidus, reared themselves. countrymen. I descended with them I saluted the country of Homer, Apel- into the long boat; we entered the les, Herodotus, Thales, - Anaxagoras, port by an aperture dug between the and Aspasia: but I perceived neither rocks, and dangerous even for a caique, the teniple of Ephesus, nor the tomb The Arabs of ihe shore advanced into of Mausoleus, nor the Venus of Gnidus. the water as bigh as their middle, in All around was a desert; and, but for order to take us on their shoulders. A the labours of Pocock, Wood, Spon, curious scene took place: my domesand Choiseul, I should have been un- tic was dressed in a sort of white ridable to recognize the promontory of ing coat, and white being the colour Mycale under its modern appellation, of distinction among the Arabs, they and divested of its glory. After have supposed that my servant was the ing put in at Rhodes, we discovered sheick. They seized hold of him, and at last the coasts of Palestine. I did carried himn in triumph in spite of his not feel that sort of anxiety which I protestations, whilst 'T, thanks to my experienced when I beheld the first blue dress, saved myself obscurely on mountains of Greece: but the sight the back of a tattered mendicant. of the cradle of the Israelites, and of We repaired to the residence of the the country of the Christians, filled fathers, a simple house of wood, built me with fear and reverence. I was upon the port, and enjoying a beautiabout to alight upon the land of pro- ful view of the sea. My hosts condigies, among the sources of the most ducted me at first to the chapel, which astonishing poesy, in the places, I found illuminated, and where they speaking even temperately, where the thanked God for having sent them a most wonderful event happened, that brother ;, interesting institutions ! ever changed the face of the world whence the traveller finds friends and I mean the birth of the Messiah. help in the most barbarous countries:

We cast anchor before Jaffa, about institutions which I have already half a league from the shore, the town praised, but which will never be sufbeing to the S. E. and the minaret of ficiently admired! the mosque to the east south-west. The monks introduced me next in. I mention here the points of the con- to a cell, where I found a table, a good pass with exactitude, for a very im- bed, ink and paper, fresh water, and portant reason: the Latin vessels ge- white linen. In order to feel the nerally anchor further off; and then comfort of all this, let any one debark they are upon a bank of rocks, which from a Greek vessel loaded with two cut the cables; while the Greek ves- hundred pilgrims. At eight o'clock sels, in approaching nearer to the land, in the evening we passed to the refecfind themselves upon a much less dan- tory: they said the benedicite by the gerous bottom, between the wet-dock de profundis ; a remembravce of death darse) of Jaffa and the bark of which Christianity niingles with every rocks.

act of life, to render them more grave, Caiques came from all parts to carry as the ancients did at their banquets, the pilgrims on shore. l'immediately to render their pleasures more poig. recognised in the masters of these ves- nant. They served me at a small taa sels, a different clothing, a different ble, neat, and by itself, with poultry, countenance, a different language, in fish, and excellent fruit, such as pomefact, the Arab race, and the inhabi- granates, grapes, and dates in their tants of the frontier of the desert. prime; and I might drink either Cy

I sent my Greek servant to inform prus wine or Levant coffee. Whilst the Fathers of the Holy Land of the I was thus loaded with benefits, the arrival of a Latin pilgrim. I soon saw fathers eat contentedly a little fish, a boat approaching, in which I per. without either salt or oil : they were ceived three monks, who, perceiving gay with mudesty, and familiar with by my dress that I was a Frank, made politeness. No useles questions, no signs to me with their hands. These frivolous curiosity. All their enquiries

were directed towards my journey, cording to some travellers, are a sort and on the means necessary to be ob- of petty sovereigns in the Holy Land, served, that I might tinish it in safety: and enjoy the greatest honours. " for," said they to me, “ we are an

[To be continued.] swerable now to vour country for your safety." They had already sent an An Account of the Commerce of France express to the sheick of the Arabs of with Africa, and the Islands of the mountain of Judea, and another France and Bourbon. to the Pere Procureur of Rama. “We THE Europcans have not always receive you," said father Francois THE

appeared as corsairs upon the Munoz, “ with a heart limpide e shores of Africa : towards the end of bianco.” It was not necessary for this the fourteenth century, the Normans Spavish monk to assure me of the and Britons had several establishments sincerity of bis sentiments : I should upon its western coasts, between Cape have read it easily in the pious frank- Verd and Guinea; they even peneness of bis countenance and of his trated into the interior of the country, looks.

by means of the rivers Senegal and This Christian and charitable recep- Gambia; and having afterwards protion in a country where Christianity ceeded a short journey by land, they and charity took their rise, this apos- re-embarked their European mer. tolic hospitality in a place where the chandizes upon the Niger, and sold first of the apostles preached the evan- them throughout the provinces of Nigelist, touched me to the very heart: gritia, the rich kingdom of Tombut, I remembered that other missionaries and that of Melli. These merchanhad received me with the same cordi- dizes principally consisted of linen ality in the deserts of America. The cloth, knives, spirituous liquors, salt, monks of the Holy Land have so much and glass-beads ; in return for which the greater merit, that in shewing to were given skins, ivory, gums, ostrich the pilgrims of Jerusalem the charity feathers, ambergris, and gold dust. of Jesus Christ, they have preserved The fatal wars during the reign of for them the cross which was planted Charles VI. gradually diminished the on these very shores. This father, French expeditions to Africa ; so that with the heart limpide e bianco, as- by the fifteenth century, of all their sured me also, that he found the life establishments, there only remained which he had now led for fifty years a to the French that of the island of St. vero paradiso. Would you know Louis. The discovery of Anierica what ibis paradise is? Every day some having effected a change in the aninsult, to be threatened with a stick, cientcommercial system, some Dieppe with chains, and with death. Some and Rouen merchants formed themtime since these monks washed the selves into a body, under the name of linen of the altar: the water, impreg, the Cape Verd Company, which, in nated with starch, in running out of 1021, began to traffic with the western their convent had whitened a stone. coasts of Africa, sorming at the same A Turk passed along, saw this stope, period a settlement upon the river and went and told the cadi that the Senegal; which, however, they refathers had repaired their house : the signed in 1664, in favour of the New codi repairs to the spot, declares that West India Company. The latter the stone, which was black, is now obtained at this epoch, amongst its white, and, without hearing the other grants, the exclusive privilege monks, he compels them to pay him of trading to the coasts of Africa lying a considerable sum. The very even- between Cape Blanco and the Cape ing of my arrival at Jaffa, the Pere of Good Hope, an extent of 1500 Procureur of the convent had been leagues. The patent of this compary threatened with the cord by a servant having been cancelled in 1072, Col. of the aga, in the presence of the aga bert oftered a premium of io francs himselt. He contented himself with for every slave brought by French pripeaceably rubbir.g up his mustachios, vateers from the coast of Africa to the without deigning to speak a favoura- American colonies: but soon the motle word to the dog. Such is the vero nopolizing plan was renewed; for, in parauiso of these monks, who, ac- 1073, a Senegal Company was formed,

to which 13 francs per head were al- granted exclusive privileges, and cons lowed for slaves. The African com- siderable sums of money,

for the carrymerce, at this period, was divided into ingon of this chimerical scheme, which two parts; namely, the commerce it is almost needless to add totally failed. with Senegal, and that with Guinea. Two years afterwards the direction of The former comprises the traffic car- the monopoly passed into better hands, ried on between the rivers Senegal who coonined the traffic to the para and Gambia. The right of trading chase of slaves only. Some years subthither was vested in a company, call- sequent to the peace of 1783, the Seed the Senegal Company, in 1085. negal Company obtained a prolongaThe charter of this company was re- tion of its patent (dated November; newed at three subsequent periods, 1786,) to July, 1796, its territorial but in 1719 it was sold to the greai Cape Verd, and the articles of traffic India Company, which enjoyed its stated to bé slaves, gum, ivory, wax, privileges till 1743, when it was forced and camwood; with this proviso, that to abandon the western coasts of Afri- the company should bear the expences ca. The commerce with Guinea is of its civil and military establishinenis, that exercised between the river Sierra and moreover send annually 400 slaves Leone inclusively, and the Cape of to Cayenne. In fine, the whole comGood Hope. The exelusive privilege merce with Africa was pronounced of trading to these parts was given, in free, by a decree of the National Ass 1085, to a company which undertook sembly, in January, 1791. As to the to furnish the American colonies with traffic in slaves upon the eastern coasts 1000 negroes annually ; but failing in of Africa, as well near Mozambique the fulfilment of this contract, it was as Madagascar; the French privateers obliged, in 1701, to yield its patent to have only frequented these parts habia new association, which undertook tually since the middle of the present to provide 3000 negroes annually, on century, when the colonies of the conditions of enjoying the privileges isles of France and Bourbon were of the former coinpany, with an addi- established. The blacks of these tional one of receiving a moiety of the coasts serve to augment the culture duties laid upon West India produce and population of the aforesaid isles; brought into France. The affairs of nevertheless, since 1783, the French this company throve better than did traders carry a vast number of slaves those of the former, without however from Mozainbique to $t. Domingo; benefiting the French colonies of and there receive a renuneration of America; this arose from the liberty 40 francs per ton npon the measurewhich was given to the company dur- ment of their vessels. At the end of ing the war of succession, of providing the reign of Louis XIV, or rather durthe Spanish colonies with blacks. The ing the first years of that of Louis XV, patent of this company. (as the Guinea the imports into France from the Company) ought in justice to have western coasts of Africa, amounted expired in 1705; but, under the title to the sum of 500,000 francs, in of the Assiento Company, it was pro- gums, elepliants' teeth, and skins, the longed to the peace of Utrecht in slaves were in nuinber 2005, at the 1713. Finally, during the first year price of 1000 francs each, rendering a of the reign of Louis XV. (1716) the sum total of 2,000,000 francs. At uade to Guinea became free, and thus the same period the total amount of it has continued to the present time. the exports for Alrica was 650,000 The French merchants in general francs.' At the epochi of the revoluprofited from the circumstance of the tion; France sent to the western coasts East India Company's abandoning the of Africa goods to the value of Senegal trade, in 1743, and enjoyed a 18,000,000 francs, out of which, fofree trade thither till 1772, when a reign articles amounted to 10,000 000. hot-beaded individual persuaded some and those of the growth or manufaccredulous persons, that nothing was ture of France to 8,000,000 francs. easier than to reach Bambouk by routes The merchandizes of these parts of till then unknown; this delusion was Africa brought into France at the peserunded by a weak wifister, whôriod of the revolutio.), amounted in

UNIVERSAL Mag. Vol. VIII. 2 E

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