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her. We pårted, and I repaired to out paying its debts, or from being the tribunal.
driven out of Siam and Tonquin, in “ Having met Gjusto, I accosted both of which places its prospects him amicably, and shewing him the of ultimate success were rather brilpapers which I bad, I told him I was liant than otherwise. In 1697, the going to lay them before the judges. same Company resigned its possess. Giusto, older than I by some years, sions in China; the intercourse of had already hurt his reputation, and France with this country commenced even deranged his head by his bad in 1660. Some new arrangements conduct. He snatched the papers were made after the peace of Ris. from my hand, turned nis back, went wick (about 1689) for the establishout of the palace, and took to ilight. . ment of a factory at Pondicherry, In this situation I walked towards the which, however, proved by no means Rialto, which is the most frequented effectual in advancing their interests, promenade in Venice. I felt melan
as appears from the nett proceeds of choly and depressed. But it was not the sales during the first twenty long beforel metGiusto there, wlio, af- years of the Company's establishter the villainy he had played upon me, ment, which only amounted to 18 assumed an insolent and insulting air; or 19,000,000 francs. the thing went so far, that at last we A new company, forined in 1699 came to arms. My adversary wounded for conducting the commerce of me in the second finger of the right China, met, at first, with some suc. hand, and cut it so deep in the first cess; but the breaking out of the joint that it nearly fell ott. Thus was Spanish war, in 1703, threw a damp accomplished the dream of my mo- upon its exertions, and the Chinese ther, which I look upon rather as a commerce lay almost dormant in revelation; and I declare to you, regard to France till 1719, when it Magnificent Lord, by that veneration was re-united to that of India. Such, which we owe to God hiinself, that at the conclusion of the reign of this recital is the pure and simple Louis XIV. was the situation of the truth."
commerce of France with India and After the perusal of this letter, can China. The French settlements in any one say, what are those laws Asia at that epoch were some fac, which thus identify the movements tories at Pondicherry, Surate, and of the imagination with the accidents Mazulipatnam, in India, and at Canof human life? The mystery is above ton in China; and the total amount our intelligence. Too often the dupes of the returns from those places was of blind credulity, let us confess, 5,940,000 francs, namely, pepper that sometimes we may be no less to the value of 2,750,000 francs, the dupes of incredulity.
muslin, 2,790,000 francs, and gold I remain, &c.
in ingots 400,000. The amount of July 9, 1807
the exportations from France to
India ard China, for which the said The Rise and Progress of the Com. returns were made, was 2,822,000
merce of France with India and francs, namely, piastres to the aChina.
mount of 2,173,000 francs, manu, I The sourfema che, and at the com T was during the reign of Louis factured coral' 542,000 francs, and
wood and metals 107,000 francs. mencement of Colbert's administra It was not till the year 1730 that tion (about the year 1664), that the this commerce experienced any confoundation of the French commerce siderable extension, at which time with the East Indies was laid. The the French obtained leave from the French East India Company was Court of Delhi to coin money, a established in 1668, and at that time privilege by which their annual proreceived many marks of royal fa- fits had an increase of nearly 500,000 vour, and very munificent endow- francs. About this time too, Du ments : these, however, did not pre- pleix founded the factory at Chan, vent the Company, in 1670, from dernagor, which having conducted deserting its factory at Surate with prosperously for the space of twelve
UNIVERSAL Mag. Vol. VIII. с
years, he quitted, and was placed in of Wampou, which is well peopled, 1742 at the head of the French es- and whose climate is salubrious.tablishments in Pondicherry; and in At the epoch of the Revolution, the the same year the imports of Indian amount of the cargoes brought into commodities into France amounted France from India and China was to. 24,000,000; in fact, Dupleix computed for three years previous raised the French commerce in India to that event to have annually been to the highest pitch of prosperity, 3-1,700,000 francs, and of the exand by rendering important services ports from France, for which these to the neighbouring princes, ob- returns were made, 17,424,000 tained for his country the vast extent francs. of territory which was ceded to the The classes of merchandise which French in 1751. The ungrateful are at this time brought from India return which the services of this truly and China to France are nearly as meritorious man met with, is too follow : 1st. manufactured commowell known to need repetition in dities, such as white and painted lithis place ; suffice it to state, that, nens, muslins, handkerchiefs, nansubsequent to his departing from keens, and silken stuffs, to the value India, Pondicherry was taken, Lally of 26,600,000 francs ; 2d. cinnathe governor, killed, the English bé. mon, pepper, tea, and Moka coffee, came possessed of all those advan. 6,000,000 francs; 3d. unmanufactages which the French had pre- tured wood, raw silk, and cotton, ele. riously enjoyed, and the East India phants' teeth, &c. 1,150,000 francs ; Company was reduced to the utmost 4th. porcelain, fans, and shells, state of distress till the peace of 493,000; 5th. and finally, drugs and 1763 : at this time it was suggested, dying roots to the value of 367,000 that if the Company were freed from francs. The exports for which the the restraint imposed upon it by being said returns are made consist of mer. subject to the superintendance of the chandises, and annually amount to King's commissary, its commerce sums contornable to the following would regain its former state of pros- statement: 1st. piastres to the value perity: but these demands for liberty of 17,424,000 francs; 2d. various proved instrumental to its destruc- manufactured commodities, 654,000 tion in 1769, when the Company's francs ; 3d. wines and brandy, privileges were suspended, and the 745,000 francs; 4th. wood and mee right of trading to the Indies and tals, 700,000 francs; and 5th. vaChina conferred upon the French rious trifling articles to the value of merchants in general, who continued 72,000 francs. The difference of to trade thither till 1785, when a nearly, 17,000,000 francs, which new company, endowed with pu- from the foregoing statement will be merous grants, was established. seen to exist between the value of This company continued to engross the exports and that of the returns, the trade of India and China till exhibits on the side of France an 1790, when the National Assembly apparent profit of 90 per cent; but passed a decree for unlimited com- when from this apparent balance in merce with India beyond the Cape favour of France are deducted the of Gond Hope, and shortly after- expenses of titting out vessels, wards appointed the ports of L'Orient freight, insurance out and home, npon the Ocean, and Cette upon the commission allowed to factors and Mediterranean, as the depots of In- custom-house charges, it will be dian commodities.
found that the merchants do not The actual possessions of the gain more than 10 or at the most 15 French in India, at the present per cent. protit.by this traffic. day, are Karical and Yanion in As 10 the internal commerce of Pondicherry, Mahe upon the coast China and India, the French settle. of Malabar, and Chandernagor upon ments reap no benefit from it; it is the barks of the Ganges, besides wholly engrossed by the English and several villages adjacent to the afore- the natives, the former of whom desaid serdements. In China, the chief rive from it a profit of nearly possession of the French is the isle 36,000,000 francs annually, besides
the profits arising from their Asiatic future relief, when many of us are imports and their revenues in Ben- already deprived, not only of the gal, the former of which annually comforts, but of the necessaries of amount to 80,000,000 francs, and life? and yet we are to be left, not the latter to 140,000,000 francs,- only without the shadow of a hope What a clear proof is this (if any of any relaxation of our present pawere wanting) of the flourishing rochial turdens, but with a certainty state of British commerce, and its of one fifth being added to them. decided superiority over that of But we are told, that if we reflect France!
on the principle of the bill, and the
great object it has in view, expense LETTER XII.-On the Management will be a very subordinate considera
of the difuirs of the Poor. tion. Can they wlio are su ready W HEN I first heard of Mr. to put their bands upon every occa
Whitbread's intention of mak- sion into the private purses of the ing an alteration in the laws relating people assure us, that our grandto The poor, I flattered myself that he children shall be raised by their enhad some plan in contemplation to deavours from their depressed state, relieve the heavy pressure of our pre- and prevented from falling into the sent burdens. There is certainly an idle and vicious manners of the preabsolute necessity for doing this, and sent age, and be raised a step in sofor placing the poor in many parishes ciety? or, are we to trust to the dein a more comfortable situation. lusive hope of gathering, grapes upon
It seems to be a prevailing evil with thorns, or figs upon thistles? All us, that men in high stations seldom that we can expect from two years think of expenses, while they can education in a village-school, where raise money, and millions are squan- children are totally ignorant, is to dered in a year to no one useful pur- give thein an idea of the power of pose. Mr. Whitbread seems to be letters to form words; but this falls one of those who thinks there can be very far short of storing the mind Do end 10 our resources, and there- with useful knowledge to assist them fore be bath not a single ivea of easing through the dangerous state of youlla our parochial assessments, but of in- up to inan. creasing them ani ually half a million, With every advantage the poor in trying his first doubtful project. have derived from charity and Sun
It is not within the limits of his day schools, still they are rapidly plan to legislate for the benefit of the increasing upon us, which is a conpresent age; but he is looking for- vincing proof that there is something ward to posterity by anticipation, further pecessary, besides teaching and we are to cast our bread upon the them to read, to prevent their pum #aters, that our grand-children and verty and depression; for it is noto, great grand-childred may find it after rious, that ihe niost skilful of our many days.
manufacturers and mechanics are the They who are so very hasty in most drunken, worthless, and dem adopting new projects ought to be paved, and if they had a knowledge reminded, that'in áll vovelty there is of all the ancient and modern lanhazard, and in all experiments there guages ever used, they would be id.e is risk of disappointment; for no and worthless still. It is not the man can reason so accurately from want of a knowledge of letters, but the past, as to be certain of a futuie the not having any sense of shame, result, and more especially when nor a fear of future punishment when it depends upon such a multitude as they offend against the laws of their the poor of this kingdom, influenced Maker, that they become immoral, as they are by various dispositions, idle, and fearless of consequences. habits, passions, and vices; that no It is only a trust in a good and merhuman foresight can say, that the ciful Providence, and a dread of means which we
now adopt shall reaping as they sow, will ever excite produce the effect we design fitty them to endeavour to support themyears hence. Why then are we to be selves with credit in that station in amused with doubtful schemes of which they are placed; and this will
depend much more upon the exam- ruin the religious, and moral principles which they daily see, than the ples of the whole nation. precepts they can imbibe in a village The Sunday routs and the late dinschool, on Mr. Whitbread's plan. ners contine servants to the whole of
The children of the dependent poor the sabbath, without giving them an at an early age quit the threshold of opportunity of going to any place of their fathers, and are sent into the religious instruction, and they soon world without guide or instructor to become as indifferent to it as their regulate their appetites, which soon superiors; and what can we expect grow active and vigorous; and they more than we see in our dependent every where meet with teipptations poor, when so much is done to make inviting, and examples encouraging them like the people in France, them to gratify inclinations, which downright atheists; or, which is demand indulgence with an impe- nearly the same thing, to live withrious tone. If we consider the pre- out a knowledge of God in the world. sent state of religion and morals Even our farmers, in many parts in the nations, can we expect that of the kingdom, are too fashionable they will resist the prevailing cus- to attend at church on the sabbath, toms, habits, and vices, which are and their servants are left to follow within their reach?
their own inclinations, and to ridiFor the last twenty-five or thirty cule religion and the clergy; and can years, there hath bee: a systematic any one be so weak as to suppose, plan regularly pursued, which hath that a little reading, without underproduced a general profligacy in prin- standing the meaning of words, can ciple and in practice, among the prevail over the poison which issues lower order of the people, and our from such sources ? present habits cannot fail of com If we attend to the press for the pleting it.
last forty years, but more especially In the American war it was first the last twenty, it will be found, that thought unnecessary for soldiers to writers of various denominations have attend divine service; and this pre- exercised their talents in abusing the pared the way for the dismission of establish nt and the whole body of chaplains of regiments; and if the the clergy. There are two monthly men were occasionally sent to the publications which have been noto, church nearest their garrison or bar- rious for it. The trash which is is, rack, it was under the care of a sued from the shelves of circulating serjeant, who either suffered them to libraries to fill up the vacant hours of file off when they came to the door, our modern beaux and belles, hath in or to go out as soon as they entered, many instances the same tendency. and fill the streets and the alehouses. Did the first ranks in society, in The militia did not fail to ape the Scotland, when they established their regulars; and when volunteering be: schools, set the people such perni. came fashionable, they followed their cious examples ? or had they so many example: and the plan which was ways of poisoning their moral prinadopted by pur heaven-born Minister ciples? or have they had since? if to exercise on Sunday, and in we except Edinburgh; but even the service-time, nearly emptied there some decency in appearance is both churches and meetings, by kept up during service-time on the drawing all the young people of both sabbath. Did they, when they formed sexes after them into the field, and the plan for instructing their dependthe far greatest part have followed entpoor, neglect all public worship the example set them by their supe- themselves ? Did they endeavour to riors, and have never returned again; lessen the respect for the clergy, as nor can the little knowledge they we have done in the debates in a may acquire from two years education certain assembly? or did they, while ever counteract such pernicious prac- they were inculcating habits of reli.. tices. If ever the militia should be gion, sobriety, and industry, counter-, disembodied and sent back to their act their precepts by a contrary prac: own homes, they of themselves will tice? If our manners are quite dif.
ferent, why produce the Scotch edu- lencies worthy of being known-some cation as the only plan to raise our powers of mind-some nicety of disdependent poor from the situation in crimination-some knowledge of which they are sunk by our own mankind and some acquirements of misconduct, when there is no simi- study, which inuitle him to their allarity in the habits of the two na- tention. Without this he will either tions?
sink into despondency as he contem. [To be continued.] plates his undertaking, or rely too
much upon adventitious assistance, THE CONTEMPLATIST. which he will accept with indiscrimiNo. 1.
nate facility. As to myself, neither Animo vidit, ing mio complexus est, elo- upborne by the airy bubbles of imagiquen ia illuminavit. PATERCULUS.
nary excellence, nor depressed by the HE sprightliness of wit, the sen- gloomy apprehensions of total disquastores of learning, and the gaiety of tion, upon my own exertions ; not humor, have already been displayed wholly careless of the applause of my in the form of periodical essays, un- countrymen, but resolved either to der various appellations, Of these deserve it, or to desist from my lasome hold a distinguished rank in the bours whenever neglect teaches me literature of the country; while that I have over-valued my pretenothers, though not calculated to ex- sions. I shall neither court atiention cite admiration or command applause, by an alluring display of professions, enjoy the merit of contributing to nor deprecate censure by the shallow our stock of amusement by harmless artifice of confessing that I deserve it ; merriment and humble truths, pleas- the one would impose a restraint upingly expressed. It cannot, however, on me I should be unwilling to enbe doubted, that each of them began dure; and the other would betray their career with equal expectations either a consummate stupidity, or a of success; hoping to meet, not oniy duplicity unworthy a man who means with adulatory distinction from their fairly. The question cannot long vicontemporaries, but to enlighten and brate between doubt and certainty; a delight succecding ages, when their few numbers will ascertain whether authors were alike insensible to cen- my lucubrations be or be no: deserysure and to praise-to pre-eminence ing of the attention of the public; and and to neglect! How they have suc- that period I shall pass with tew emoceeded affords a useful lesson to man- tions of bope or fear, for I have lived kind; that, however the illusions of too long in the world not to know, pride, the partiality of friends, or the that neither hope nor fear can acceconfidence of vanity, may excite ex- lerate or retard the decisions of mantensive hopes and boundless expecta- kind. tions of success, yet substantial merit It has been customary with my alone ought to claim or can obtain it; predecessors to give a fictitious acthat the ambition which prompts our count of themselves and coadjutors, exertions, and points to the highest corresponding to the character they place, may yet qualify us to hold a intend to support throughout. It is useful and respectable station ; and not often safe to dispute the prescrip; that the world, unbiassed by preju- tive power of custom; and I should dice, and unmarked by partiality, feel undoubted satisfaction in comply. awards its honour slowly but justly, ing with an established mode, could and adjudges, with strict fidelity, the I persuade myself that I should either glories of immortal fame, to the ema- contribute to the amusement of my nations of genius, and to the maxims readers, or administer to my own inof wisdom.
clinations; as to the former they It is well, however, that every man, could derive little benefit or delight' who proposes to call the attention of from treading again in a path where I the public towards himself, should could scatter none of the flowers of have a just consciousness of his own novelty, could lead them into no unpowers; be should at least regard discovered windings, or amuse them bimself as possessing some excel- with any yet unseen beauties ; and I