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Che, forte al pari del più forte Atrida, Christ. 2. Reflexions impartiales sur
4. Histoire alregie du Sacerdoce an
cien et moderne. Have any of these Dove poi s'ascondesse ill bel lavoro, been printed? An answer to the Alla musca gentil non è palesa;
whole, or any of the above questions, Forse torno de' sommi Dei fra il coro, will oblige Yours, &c. Forse in astro povello in ciel s'accese
QUÆSTIUNCULA, Sia come vuole; in prendo alcun ristoro,
Edinburgh, June 27, 1807.
EXTRACTS from Alian's VARIOUS These eighteen stanzas were the
History. By Dr. TOULMIN. production of about so many minutes, [Continued from p.400. vol. vii.] and I could not always, without help, No. 36.- The Generals Demetrius follow this almost uninterrupted co
and Timotheus compared. pious stream of poetry. In a former
THICH was the superior Genecompany the combat of Etcocles and ral Demetrius Polioneles, or Polymices was given to the same poet Timotheus, the Athenian? I will as a theme, and he treated this heroic represent the conduct of both: from subject with such a superiority and whence it may judged, which was insuch inspired sublimity, that the com- titled to most honour. Demetrius, pany remained in a sort of luxurious drawing up his battering machines to astonishment, and a universal pity was shake and throw down the walls, took excited that no preparations biad been cities by violence, harrassing them to made for rescuing such a happy effort the utmost, and inflicting on them the from oblivion. It must be observed greatest calamities: Timotheus, by also, that this was the first time for argument and persuasion, shewed six years (during which period he had them, that it would be for their ada been invested with official duties, vantage to submit to the goveriment partly under the former Papal govern- of the Athenians. ment, partly under the republic) that No.37.-The Origin of Cock-fighting. he had appeared, after the last effort, The Athenians, after the conquest as an improvisatore.
of the Persians, passed a law : “ That July 6, 1807
W.M. there should be a public cock-match,
on the stage, every year." I will ex, Sir,
plain what gave occasion to this staSHOULD feel myself much indebted tute. When Themistocles led the
to any of your correspondents, if forces of the city against the Barbathey couldinform me whether the Sys- rians, he saw some cocks fighting; temede la Nature, published under the nor did he view them with indiffername of M. Mirabaud, be really the ence: but commanding his arıny to production of D'Alembert; whether halt, he thus addressed his soldiers : he ever acknowledged it as such in any “ These do not assail each other for of his writings; or if not, upon what the sake of country, nor for their paauthority it is generally asserted to bę ternal Gods, nor for the sepulchres of his? The title page of the copy, now their heroic ancestors, nor for glory, before me, bears the imprint of Lon- nor for liberty, nor for children ; but dres, 1774, and prefixed to the work for mastery.". By this speech he is a pretended account of the author, roused the spirits of the Athenians, who is said to have been perpetual se- and he wished to perpetuate the mecretary to, and one of the forty of the mory of the incident by which he aniFrench academy ; it is added, that he mated their courage, as a stimulant died June 24, 1760. Was there ever to the like exploits. such a man? and is he known as the · Note.-Mr. Upton supposes that author of any work besides this, which another reason, for the institution of is imputed to him. In the account cock-matches by Themistocles, may above-mentioned there are four works, be assigned besides that given by principally scriptural, said to have been Ælian : namely, to preserve the nie. left behind him. 1. La vie de Jesus mory of his Persian conquest, as that
bird first emigrated from Persia into adapted to sooth, captivate, and seduce other countries.-Eustathius, it may, women? bowever, be observed, attributes to No. 41.-Crates' greatness of mind. the same origin as Ælian does, the Crates, the Theban, discovered, in annual cock-fightings of the Athe. many instances, a greatness of mind, Dians.
and was known to despise those No. 35.-The effects of Irony and things to which the majority are wonSarcasms.
derfully attached, such as money and Irony and sarcastic jeers have, in their country. That he gave up his niy opinion, no force in themselves. fortune to the Thebans was a niatter If aimed at a man of firm mind, they talked of among all; but another acevaporate; but if, indeed, they are tion of his is not well known. It was levelled at low and mean spirits, they this : Leaving Thebes after its restonot only grieve, but sometimes kill. ration, he exclaimed, “I want not a For instance, Socrates, when satyrised city which Alexander, or some other and ridiculed on the stage, laughed at conqueror, will lay in ruins.” it; but Poliager hung himself. No. 42. Olympias' grief over AlexNo. 39.- No Atheists among Bar ander lying unburied. barians.
Olympias, the Mother of Alex. Who will not extol the wisdom of ander, hearing that her son had lain a the Barbarians ? For not one amongst considerable time unburied, said, them hath fallen into Atheism, or with heavy groans and violent bewail. hath doubted, whether there be Gods ings: • What shall thou my son, or not, and whether they take care of who aspired to heaven, and ardently us or not. None of them, neither pursued thy aim, shalt thou want what Indian, Celtic, or Egyptian, adopted the meanest men obtain, a grave and such opinions as did Euëmeras the burial?" Thus she lamented her own Messenian, or Diogenes the Phrygian, calamity, and reproved his empty or Hippo, or Diagoras, or Sosias, or pride. Epicurus. The forementioned Bar- No. 43.-Xenophon's love of elegance barians asserted, that there were
in dress. Gods, who exercised a providence As Xenophon studied elegance in over us, and predicted future events other points,so hewas particularly fond by birds and tokens, and the entrails of handsome arniour. For he used to of animals, and other prognostica- say, that the most splendid habit was tions : all which things are arguments becoming him who had subdued bis to men of the superintendence of the enemies, and that he who died in Gods. They also tell as many things battle would be gracefully extended, are foretold to them in dreams, and covered with beautiful armour, which by the stars. From a firm faith in would
form at once the ornathese principles they religiously offer ments and the sepulchral dress of a sacrifices, and live in pure and holy brave man. The son of Gryllus is manners, and perform ceremonies, reported to have furnished himself and observe the law of orgies, and do with a shield from Argos, a breast many other things, which strongly plate from Athens, and helmet from express their worship and reverence Bæotia, and a horse from Epidaurium. of the Gods.
I must say, that I consider such a se.' No. 40.-Of Alexander and the Lyre lection as indicating the man of taste, of Paris.
and a consciousness of his own digWhen Alexander visited Troy, a nity. Trojan, as he was engaged in a close No. 44.-Demosthenes refuses Dioexamination of every thing, came and
genes' invitation. shewed to him the Lyre of Paris. “I As Diogenes was dining one day in should much prefer," said he, “ see a tavern, he saw Demosthenes passing ing that of Achilles than that of Paris.” by, and invited him in. On his deFor he was desirous of seeing the in- clining the invitation, "What,” says strument on which a courageous sol, he, “are you ashamed to enter into dier sang the praises of brave men. a tavern, which is visited every day But as to the Lyre of Paris, to what by your master ;” meaning the people was it suited, but to adplterous tunes, and every individual of them, to inti
mate that public speakers and orators On the INTERNAL STATE of the are the servants of the people ?"
COUNTRY. No. 45.--Calanus' voluntary death.
THE is worthy of praise, some would say of nally, as well as externally, beadmiration. It was of this nature: comes every day more alarming; it Calanus, the Indian soplist, having is, however, only of the first that I taken a last farewell of Alexander and mean to speak at present-the enorthe Lacedæmonians, wished to release mous abuses of the government, himself from the shackles of the body. which have brought upon us such a He had a pile erected in the hand- load of debt and taxation, though they somest suburbs of Babylon. The may be defended by the advocate of wood of which it was made, was per. corruption, cannot be denied; but the fectly dry, and was chosen from ce- pertinacity with which they adhere to dar, thyme, cypress, and laurel, to them, must give the most serious produce a sweet fragrance. When alarm to every honest impartial man, he had taken his usual exercise, which because he must dread the collision was that of running, he ascended the of those who are determined to repile, and, encircled with a garland of tain these abuses, and of those who reeds, stood in the middle of it. The are determined to reform them, for sun at that moment darted upon him by such a collision the state may be with its rays.
He fell prostrate be- rent asunder; and yet this danger, fore it. This was the signal for the however great, ought not to deter any Lacedæmonians to set fire to the pile. man who wishes well to his country, This was done. The flame entwin, from speaking his opinion as to the ing round him, he stood dauntiess, means which he thinks most likely to and did not fall till he was burnt to avoid the extensive calamity which ashes. Then, it is reported, Alex, may ensue from civil commotion ; ander, with great astonishment, said, and, in my opinion, the whole fate of Calanus had sustained a severer con- the country depends on the conduct Nict than himself: he had advanced of those who are unconnected with against Porus, Taxiles, and Darius, the two parties, and unwilling to go but Calanus had engaged with pain the length of either-tbat is to say, and death.
the great body of the people, who are No. 46.-The reason of Aristotle's ultimately, most interested in the leaving Athens.
struggle, should they stand by uncon: When Aristotle, through fear of cerned, and suffer the reforming part its tribunal, left Athens, he replied to to be defeated and overpowered by a person who asked him, what kind the ministry, they may be certain that of a city it was, a very beautiful the ruinous system of war and taxone; there," he added, alluding to ation will be pursued till they have the sycophants and false accusers, neither liberty por property remaining, $pear-tree after pear-tree, and fig- and perhaps at last become the slaves tree after fig tree fourishes, decays, of a foreign enemy, who is ever in. and dies." To the enquiry, why he tent on our subjugation. Should left Athens, he answered, " because they, on the other hand, be led to he was very unwilling that the Athe-countenance all the proceedings of nians should offend twice against phi, the reformers, they may find it not losophy :” glancing at the death of easy to stop where they intended; Socrates, and at his own danger. and after suffering, for a few years,
No. 47.- Of Phocion. all the miseries of anarchy, may end I think the following instance of at length in despotism. ·- To avoid conduct in Phocion, the son of Pho- these two extremes, it seems to me cus, truly excellent. When some requisite that the respectable part of charge was ignorantly brought against the community should every where, him, addressing the Athenians, in in public meetings, express their dethe public assembly, he declared with termination to support the constitujudgment and emphasis," I had much tion, as established in the reign of rather myself suffer an injury from William the Third, and to reject you, than do you the least wrong," every innovation, whether already in.
troduced by ministerial corruption, or much as he would have so much more attempted by democratic violence; money to spend for his pri 3t or his they should firmly and explicitly de- pleasure, and for the maintenance of clare their intention, thai no room his family ; and all which is taker may be left for misrepresentation or from him more than what is requisite mistake, for every artifice will no for the expences of the state, is down)doubt be used, to intimidate and ca- 'right robbery by, whomsoever comlumniate them; but when once their mitted, or by whomsoever enjoyed. numbers have given them conse- Let Englishmen consider these things, quence, it will be no longer possible let them be true to themselves, and to for the government to refuse or to each other, and the time must and defer the long wished for reform; will come, when things will be other. and is there in this any thing to which wise; but if they do not do somean honest man can object, is there thing for themselves, they might as any to alarm or terrify, any but those well expect a plough to plough itself, who share in the plunder of the peo- or a horse to yoke itself to a plough, ple, and thrive only by public rob- as that any ministry will ever lighten bery, The resistance wbich these their taxes, or study their comfort. people make to the very name of re
I remain, &c. form, and their despicable artifice in
W. BURDON. calling it revolution, form the chief Hartford, near Morpeth, danger to be apprehended from the June 9, 1807. agitation of the question ; it is not in the thing itself, and that every honest The Dream ACCOMPLISHED; man must see, but in the opposition Anecdote from the Correspondence to it, the danger lies. In my opinion, of Cardinal Bembo. the only means of lessening the dan Sir, ger, is by lessening the opposition, THE life of man, as is well and this can only be done by the una known, may be divided nimous voice of the people, or at least two different states of existence, the of such a majority as shall leave no state of sleep and that of being awake. doubt of their strength. Can any. We often pass' from one to the other man honestly say there is no need of by an intermediate state, which rereform, when the oppression of taxa- tains the body in its soporific Jetion is such that the middle and lower thargy, but permits the faculties of ranks are deprived of almost every the soul to display a part of their accomfort they used to enjoy? Can tivity. This is the state of dreaming, any man say that they can endure to a happy moment, well known to be further taxed, or can any man say feeling minds, and whence often that the taxes thus raised by taxation, proceeds our most sublime ideas. are applied solely to the inevitable ex Dreams may precede a perfect or pences of the state in supporting the sound sleep, as well as being an inpresent war: surely no man will ven- terval between sleeping and waking; ture to assert this after the declara- during the night even we often have fion made in the House of Commons, various dreams, which are more or by a respectable member of a former less agreeable according to circumadministration, viz. that six millions stances. But in my opinion there is might be saved in the department of a great difference between the dreams the navy alone, without any detri- of the night and those of the mornment to the service; and from this it ing: in the evening our bodies yield may be in ferred, that similar retrench- overwhelmed with fatigue; but our ments might be made in other de- soul remains active in spite of it, and partments, and thus a considerable teeds upon the newly awakened rereduction take place in the taxes; miniscence of those ideas which ocnow this is positive and specific, as to cupied it during the day; in the the nature of the reform proposed, morning the body is refreshed, and and the benefit to be derived from its the soul, which first rouses from its and every man must say, that by this state of torpor, occupies itself with reform he would be a guiner, in as new vigour about those objects which
are to form part of its contemplation. reign over Tuscany, had been exiled If the dreams of the evening are re- three tines from Florence in less than collections of the passed, those of the acentury; three times they had returnmorning are presentiments of the ed to it, more rich, more respectable, future, which are often realised, and and more powerful; and the Duke of which seem strongly to prove that our Nemours, of whom I have spoken, soul is of a nature superior to all con- exiled in 1494, did not return to his ception. Where is the man, who, country till the very year in which awakening in the morning, has not this leiter is dated. had more elevated views of his af The celebrity of Cardinal Bembo, fairs, of his situation, and of those the grandeur of the personage to things to which his affections most whom he wrote, and the contents of incline him. These perceptions of the letter, have all stimulated me to our soul, which seem to anticipate translate it. It contains an account the actions of our life, do they not of a dream of the Cardinal's mother, bespeak its noble and immortal which, as will be seen, was but too origin?
unhappily accomplished. It is as A pure air, a mild temperature, follows:-and a soft fresh wind, favour emi
"Magnificent Lord-I reply to a nently that gentle sleep which is so letter, in which you have expressed a favourable to dreams and reveries. wish to know the nature of a dream Tasso felt this powerfully when he of my mother's, which revealed to said,
her during the night what was to Ei venticelli dibattendo l'ali
happen to me the next day. To saLusingavano il sonno di mortali. You will excuse, Sir, these reflec- tisfy your curiosity, I shall add to my
answer an account of its accomplishtions upon dreams: alas ! they form too often the happiest part of our * At the time my father was amexistence. I do not wish to establish bassador from your nation to Rome, å theory; but I thought these few under the pontificate of Pope Innoprefatory strictures would not be
cent, I found myself detained at Veimproper to the recital of a fact, which nice, with my mother, by a process, appears to be too remarkable to re- which our family had to sustain main in Oblivion.
against a gentlenian, a countrymau Italian literature, like that of other of ours, called Simon Goro. This countries, has its collections of printed Goro sent off
' here one of his nephews, letters by celebrated people. In called Giusto, to plead in his name France, this department bas been against me. One morning, as I was principally filled by women; in Eng- coming out of my chamber with the land, a few men of letters, Pope, papers in my hand, which I was to Swift, Johnson, Gray, and others, lay before the magistrate who had the have left behind them epistolary me- décision of our suit, I met my mother, morials; in Italy, they have been who advanced towards me, and asked principally written by, poets and pre- me whither I was going Upon my lates.' A collection tilled with pieces reply, she recommended me not to of this kind, and all classical, having have any dispute on that day with fallen into my hands,* my attention Giusto, and to confine myself merely was called to one written in 1512 by to presenting my papers to the judges the learned Cardinal Bembo, to a no- in his presence. She repeated her bleman of the House of Medici, who request' upon this subject very often, had acquired the cognomen of the which appeared to me so singular, Magnificent. History mentions him that I could not help asking her the under the name of Julian duke of reason. I will teil you, replied she: Nemours, husband of Philibert of I dreamed this night that Giusto Savoy.
you in the right hand. You The family of Medicis, destined to know how often my dreams have been
verified; therefore, I entreat you, Raccolta di rime e prose dell' abbate altercation with that man, I promised
my dear child, endeavour to have to Tagliazucchi vol. ü.