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Next followed a very thorough exposition of the syllabus on the subject of Geography,” by Pres. D. McGregor.

Prof. A. J. Hutton then took up the subject of Penmanship, claiming that the great thing to be secured is legibility; what we want is a good plain hand. Prof. Johnson thought too much time is spent in analyzing and not enough in prac. tice; Prof. Anderson would give a drill that would stand by the pupil in his every day practice.

In the afternoon, Prof. W. S. Johnson read a well prepared paper on Drawing, and its adaptation to common school work. Free-hand drawing should be in. cluded in the branches required for a second grade certificate. Many failures to secure interest in this branch are due to wrong ideas about what is implied, and lack of ability to accomplish anything definite. A discussion followed, en. gaged in by Messrs. Zimmermann, Anderson, and Walker.

Next followed a class drill in History and Civil Government, which was ably conducted by Prof. Geo. Beck.

Carefully prepared papers on “School Organization,” by Supt. T. C. Richmond, and “School Records,” by Prof. I. N. Stewart, were read. The convention then adjourned, sine die.

W. C. WHITFORD, Chairman. FRED. W. ISHAM, Secretary.

The following Institute Conductors were present during the session of the convention: Robt. Graham, Albert Salisbury, J. B. Thayer, A. J. Hutton, D. McGregor, W. D. Parker, W. A. Walker, B. R. Grogan, W.J. Brier, P. E. Skahen, B. M. Reynolds, Hosea Barnes, Ed. McLoughlin, O. S. Westcott, D. H. Flett, I. N. Stewart, Fred. W. Isham, Geo. Skewes, H. D. Maxson, W. S. Johnson, A. A. Miller, S. A. Hooper, C. F. Zimmermann, J. H. Terry, A. F. North, J. T. Lund, J. Q. Emery, Henry Jane, T. C. Richmond, Geo. Beck, Chas. H. Nye, J. M. Rait, C. A. Burlew, T. B. Pray, 0. B. Wyman, T. F. Frawley, J. H. Gould, A. R. Sprague, and Miss Agnes Hosford.

Other leading teachers and school officers were present during the sessions of the Conductors, and some of them participated in the discussions.

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STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Annr al Session of the Wisconsin Teachers' Association, Held at La Crosse, July 8-11, 1879.

TUESDAY EVENING, July 8. Rev. G. P. Nichols, of Milwaukee, delivered a lecture on “Ideal Aims,” be. fore the Association, at the Baptist Church.

WEDNESDAY MORNING, July 9. Pres. Chandler called the Association to order at 9:15, and Prof. Blaisdell, of Beloit, offered prayer.

The address of welcome was delivered by Joseph W. Losey, Esq., mayor of La Crosse.

The President's Address, by Hon. W. H. Chandler, was next presented, and


was referred to a committee consisting of Messrs. James MacAlister, J. Q. Emery, and T. C. Richmond, for distributing to sub.committees.

On motion of Mr. Burton, a committee of seven was authorized to report on the value of the Exhibitory Department, and Messrs. W. D. Parker, J. H. Terry, F. W. Isham, Miss A. Hosford, D. McGregor, A. J. Hutton, and G. W. Foster, were appointed such committee.

On motion it was ordered that the actual teachers and superintendents present from adjoining States, be created honorary members by filing their names with the secretary.

The committee on Hororary Members was appointed as follows: Robert Graham, B. M. Reynolds, and Alex. Kerr.

After a recess of fifteen minutes, Supt. C. W. Roby, of La Crosse, read a paper entitled “ An Educational Problem."

He was followed by Mi Emily M. B. Felt, of Platteville, who read a paper on “The Teacher's Duty to Himself.” After music by the choir the Association adjourned.

WEDNESDAY EVENING. Prof. J. J. Blaisdell, of Beloit, delivered a lecture entitled “Relation: of the Higher to the Lower Education," in Germania Hall.

THURSDAY, JULY 9. Thursday was passed in an excursion on the Steamer Arkansas, to Winona, Minn., where the Association was received and entertained by the citizens of that place.

A meeting of the Association was held on board the steamboat, and business transacted as follows:

G. S. Albee, J. T. Lunn, and Miss A. Hosford were appointed a committee on resolutions.

W. H. Beach, A. Thomas, and Miss Betsey M. Clapp were named as the com. mittee on nominations.

The committee on President's Address, reported that they had distributed it under the following heads, and to the following committees to report on the


1. “Course of Study for Ungraded Schools,” — Supt. Whitford, R. Graham, J. T. Lunn, M. S. Frawley, and Miss Mary Brandenburg.

2. “Agitation of Popular Education,” D. McGregor, A. F. North, and A. A. Miller.

3. “Relations of Ungraded Schools to the High Schools,” – R. W. Burton, T. F. Frawley, and Miss A. Hosford.

4. “Relations of High Schools to Collegiate Education,” — W. H. Beach, O. S. Westcott, and I. N. Stewart.

5. “ Kindergarten,” — W. H. Richardson, G. S. Albee, and Miss S. A. Stewart. The election of officers was made the special order for 8, A. M., Friday, Adjourned.

FRIDAY MORNING, July 10. Called to order at 8: 15.

On motion of T. F. Frawley, the special order of this morning, the election of officers, was postponed until 11 o'clock.

Pres. Chandler laid before the Association a paper from Prof. Thos. W. Chittenden, now in the employ of the State Board of Health, entitled “School Hygiene.” By vote it was received, and its publication requested in the JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.

Supt. O. B. Wyman read a paper on “ Compulsory Education,” which was fol. lowed by a discussion.

Supt. Whitford said that there is quite a strong sentiment in favor of the present law among the people, that this is shown by the articles now appearing in the newspapers of the State. The bill originated with the business men of the State, not with the teachers and school officers. The question is, will the law be enforced. The general prediction is that it will prove a dead letter. He thinks the chances are favorable for its enforcement. County superintendents have a large responsibility. The teachers must stand firm. The effect of the law will be largely moral.

James MacAlister asked what are the provisions of the law and what the means for its enforcement.

Supt. Wyman explained in full by referring to the statutes.

A. O. Wright asked if the twelve weeks are to be consecutive. Answered: It is any

twelve weeks in the year. J. N. Steroart said the law was so vague that it was practically a nullity. He asked what shall be done with these pupils when they do come. The work of teaching the absentees will be largely reformatory, and there is no place in the public school for such work.

Mr. MacAlister asked if the law will accomplish the desired result. If it will be enforced.

Mr. Wyman said, yes.
Mr. T. F. Frawley said that he hoped for no aid from politicians or business

Teachers and school officers must do the work. The fact that the build. ings are erected at public expense is no reason for their occupancy.

Mr. MacAlister said that reformatory schools must be established.

W. A. Walker said that the fact that the law permitted children to attend any school would defeat its purpose, as many will be sent to schools where the En. glish language is not spoken. The pupils should be sent twelve consecutive weeks.

A desultory discussion here ensued.

On motion of J. B. Thayer, the President appointed a committee of three, con. sisting of J. B. Thayer, J. Q. Emery, and J. S. Dore, to collect information on the subject of the paper and report at the winter meeting.

Mrs. Sarah C. Little, Supt. of the Institute for the Blind at Janesville, read a paper on the “ Education of the Blind.”

Supt. Whitford, being called upon, pronounced a high commendation of the Institute at Janesville, and of Mr. and Mrs. Little, its former and its present superintendents. He also spoke highly of the work done in the school for the Deaf and Dumb, at Delavan.

On motion of Prof. Kerr, the paper of Mrs. Little was ordered printed in pamphlet form, at the expense of the Association, for circulation in this and other States,


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Prof. Henry Sabin, of Clinton, Iowa, read a paper on The New Education."

On motion of Supt. Whitford, Prof. Sabin was requested to furnish a copy of his paper to be published in the next number of the JOURNAL OF EDUCATION. Prof. W. H. Beach, of Beloit, was chosen President of the Association.

The other officers were elected as reported by the committee on Nominations, as follows:

Vice-Presidents - Albert Salisbury, C. W. Roby, and Miss Anna W. Moody.
Secretary - Fred. W. Isham, Elkhorn.
Treasurer – H. A. Hobart, Neenah.

Counsellors — W. H. Chandler, Sun Prairie; R. W. Burton, Janesville; B. R. Grogan, Elkhart Lake; Alexander Kerr, Madison; and W. G. Clough, Portage City.

The committee on Honorary Members reported the following names for en. rollment on the records of the Association, as honorary members:

Prof. C. Whitman, of Red Wing, Prof. D. L. Kiehle, of St. Cloud, and Prof. 0. M. Lord, of Minnesota City, Minn.; G. P. Randall, of Chicago; Prof. Jas. J. Blaisdell, Beloit; Prof. Henry Sabin, Clinton, Ia.; Jos. W. Losey, Esq., Chas. Seymour, Esq., Alex. McMillan, Esq., and Dr. Wendell Anderson, of La Crosse; Rev. G. P. Nichols, D. D., Milwaukee; Rev. F. T. Lee, Sparta; Miss Emily A. Hayward, Elgin, Ill. ; Mrs. Sarah C. Little, Janesville, Wis.; Prof. Irwin Shepard, Thos. Simpson, Esq., and Prof. C. A. Morey, Winona, Minn.

R. GRAHAM, Chairman Committee.

Prof. A. O. Wright read a paper on the “Philosophy of History."
Mr. Albee, of the committee on Resolutions, presented the following report:

Your committee, whose privilege it is to express our grateful appreciation of all the favors conferred and blessings showered upon the members of this Association here assembled, offer the following:

Resolved, That amid all the munificent hospitalities extended to the Wisconsin Teachers’ Association, by the noble-hearted people of our State, during the past quarter century, few have equaled and none surpassed those of the open-handed, whole souled citizens of La Crosse.

Resolved, That through the wise and considerate forethought and unwearied efforts of the Board of Education, superintendent, and teachers of La Crosse, every facility for our deliberation has been afforded and every need anticipated.

Resolved, That the citizens of La Crosse, who have opened their homes so cordially to the teachers of Wisconsin, will be held in lasting remembrance, not merely for the acceptable entertainment, but as models of the courtesy which springs from generous hearts.

Resolved, That to the officers of the Baptist Church and of Germania Hall, our sincere thanks are tendered for the use of their spacious and convenient edifices.

Resolved, That we are under deep obligations to Prof. Cleveland and the Mus. ical Association of La Crosse, for the pleasing variety afforded at the sessions of our meeting, giving surcease from care and lifting our hearts in harmony.

Resolved, That words cannot express the half we felt when, to all this thought ful regard and unstinted bounty, manifest in so many ways, the insatiate generosity of La Crosse, under the imcomparable leadership of Charles Seymour, in. sisted upon piling above the Pelion of its daily manifestation, an Ossa of muni. ficence, in the beautiful form of a giant free-gift excursion up the grand canyon of the Mississippi; an excursion whose accommodations, like the liberality of

3- Vol. IX.-No. 8


its projectors, far exceeded the needs of the grateful throng which gladly in. creased its debt to a creditor who refuses to keep accounts.

Resolved, That for all these manifestations of the keen sympathy and active interest which the enterprising people of La Crosse have in every worthy ef. fort intended to purify and strengihen the the life.growth of our age, we would make return not alone in the expre ion of the gratitude that fills our hearts, but we pledge our lives to a yet deeper and less selfish devotion to the noble ideals of character building.

Resolved, That to the citizens of Winona, and especially to the eminent edu. cators and officers of the respective educational interest of Winona and of Minnesota, to the teachers and to all others who worked so hard and long for us, our unbounded and heartfelt thanks are deeply due and are hereby tendered for their words of welcome and cheer, free rides. and elegant and unstinted colla. tion for six hundred hungry Badgers.

Resvived, That to all Wisconsin railways without exception, to the Winona and St. Peter, the Southern Minnesota, the Chicago, Clinton, Dubuque and Minnesota railways, to the Keokuk Northern Line Packet and Diamond Joe Line companies, and to the hotels of La Crosse, our thanks are hereby tendered for their generosity in gran ing to members of this Association, reduced rates which have contributed largely to the success of this session: and to our indefatigable railway clerk are we all, indivi lually and collectively, indebted for his rare ability and tact in placing us under obligations to the above mentioned corporations and hostelries, and in guarding and guiding us to our respective homes.

Resolved, That to the press of Wisconsin and that of adjacent Western States, we hereby acknowledge our obligation for disseminating notices of this session; but especially to the press of La Crosse, are we grateful for prompt and extended reports of our proceedings, and also for many other and varied acts of kind.

Resolved, That to Rev. G. P. Nichols, D. D., of Milwaukee, and Prof. J. J. Blaisdell, D. D., of Beloit, we tender our thanks and appreciation for lectures of thought, culture, and usefulness; and to Prof. Henry Sabin, of Clinton, Iowa, for his very able and impressive presentation of “The New Education."

Resolved, That to the outgoing officers of this Association, our kindest regards are tendered as a slight return for their uniform courtesy and efficient discharge of the complex duties of their respective positions.


Committee. The resolutions were adopted, and the convention adjourned to meet at 2 o'clock, P. M.

FRIDAY AFTERNOON. The exercises were opened with music by the choir.

A letter from Gov. Wm. E. Smith, expressing regrets for not being able to attend the meeting of the Association, was read by the secretary.

Pres. W. D. Parker read a paper in memoriam of Prof. Stephen H. Carpenter.

Supt. W. C. Whitford read a paper in memoriam of Hon. W. Starr, late president of the board of Normal Regents.

The committee on Exhibitory Department was granted leave to report at the winter session.

The sub-committees on President's Address on the subjects of “Kindergarten," Agitation of Public Education,” and “ Relations between High Schools and Colleges,” were granted leave to report at the winter meeting of the Association.

Supt. Whitford, of the Special Committee on Course of Instruction for Ungraded Schools, presented their report as follows:

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