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may be traced, and indeed is laid down on the Ordnance Survey, almost all the way to the Gaer west of Brecon; but a Roman station occurs out of this line, and still to the westward, on the moors northward of Ystradgynlais in the valley of thc Towey, and thus an element of uncertainty is introduced into the Survey, which it is desirable to examine into, or to eliminate.

There must have been lines of Roman communication up many of the Glamorganshire valleys, such as, for instance, by Gelligaer, where a Roman station still is traceable northwards from the church; and we cannot but conjecture that this line ran over the mountains to the great station west of Brecon. It may turn out after all to be coincident with Heol Adda mentioned above, and it, perhaps, passed into the Vale of the Usk by the Brecon bwlch road, because there still remains, as the lintel of a barn window by the roadside, about four miles below the southern side of the bwlch, a Romanized Christian inscription, indicative probably of some Roman occupation of the spot.

All this, and many other points connected with this portion of Roman Morganwg, ought to be looked after and systematized into the Survey.

There is plenty of work for the antiquary at Cardiff, Cowbridge, Neath, and Loughor, the four Roman stations of this district, especially at the latter place, where tidal changes have taken place, and almost the only trace of Roman occupation still to be found erect, but far from its original site, is the small Roman altar bearing Oghams on one of its edges, placed on the lawn of the vicarage grounds.

This stone with the Ogham-bearing Roman stone of Pumpeius Carantorius, on the line of road as it comes down from Kenfig Church, well deserves the careful and comparative survey of the antiquary.

Let one query conclude this part of the subject : are there any traces, either above or below ground, of the Romans in Swansea, or anywhere else in Gower ?

H. L. J. (To be continued.)



The Annual Meeting of the Association will be held this year at Bridgend, Glamorganshire, under the presidency of the EARL OF DUNRAVEN. The precise tiine, with other particulars, will be announced in the next number of the Journal. It is sufficient to mention the name of the county, so rich in antiquities; the abbeys of Ewenny, Neath, and Margam; the castles of St. Donat's and Coity; and the churches of Cowbridge, Lantwit Major, etc., to make members aware of the probable interest and importance of such a meeting held under such able auspices.




SIR,-Permit me to offer a few remarks on the “Uncertain Stone Ornament,” figured and described in the October number, 1868, of the Journal of the Cambrian Archæological Association.

I have no hesitation in asserting that this so-called implement is a portable or pocket sun-dial, capable of being suspended to the person, or round the neck by a string passed through the transverse orifice at its narrow end. Thus the instrument when ordinarily seen would be in a reversed position to that shewn in the admirable woodcut which represents it. The gnomon was a short conical piece of wood fitting into the central orifice.

Let us suppose the gnomon to be inserted in its proper position; if the instrument were then allowed to hang from the string, a short plummet attached to the base of the gnomon would enable the operator to cause the central line of the dial to be vertical, and, therefore, in a position to catch the shadow thrown by the sun at twelve o'clock.

If the dial were used horizontally, the central line just alluded to would, of course, represent the meridian, in which direction it should

be placed to catch the s'dow thrown at twelve o'clock; and then the shorter transverse lines at right angles to it would point due east and west, and mark the hours of 6 A.M. and 6 P.M. Each half of the circle is seen to be divided by radiating lines into four prominent spaces; an intermediate extra scratch on the west side, and a double line on the cast at the six o'clock mark, being, I think, of no account in the true subdivision of the dial into eight spaces.

That such was the true significance of the lines radiating over the northern half of the dial, or between the meridian line and that striking east and west, is established by the presence of the seven small conical holes counter sunk and drilled through and through the stone around the outer periphery of the circle, and directly opposite the termination of each of the radiating lines.

I believe that the extra scratches on the southern end of the dial are possibly mere ornamentation to fill up a vacant and supposed unsightly space, as, with the exception of the prolonged meridian line, they do not radiate from the common centre at the gnomon orifice; these lines, however, may have a significance, the true explanation of which we cannot now arrive at.

This pocket or portable sun-dial is, I believe, of early Christian age, the latest period to which I can assign it, from the massive character of its mouldings, being the twelfth century.

I am of opinion that this dial was intended to denote the seven canonical hours of the day, viz. :-Matins, 6 A.m.; Laudes, 8 A.m.; Nones, 9 A.m.; Prime, 12 Noon; Compline, 2 P.m.; Tierce, 3 P.m.; Vespers, 6 P.M.

Of late I have paid some attention to an utterly overlooked subject of Irish antiquities, that of the occurrence of Pillar Sun-dials, some of them, from their carving and ornamentation, dating back to the earliest Christian times, and others extending up to the thirteenth century.

Invariably these most singular remains were described as crosses of a strange type, till their true significance became apparent to me; some time since I placed in the hands of our venerated antiquary, Albert Way, Esq., a paper on this subject for the Journal of the Ar. chæological Institute, in which I hope soon to see it published. I have been fortunate enough to get several examples pillar sun-dials from various parts of Ireland, and I lighted on one only a short time since at a spot on the coast of the county Down, traditionally recognised as the place where St. Patrick landed the character of this dial being that of the very oldest.

I beg to refer you to an interesting example of a sun-dial of Saxon age, illustrated and described in the Arch. Journal, No. 41, for March, 1854. This dial divides the day into twelve hours; but marks with extra distinctness the lines denoting the canonical hours of Matins, Nones, Prime, Tierce, and Vespers. It would appear, therefore, that the “monks of old," like Shakespeare's Touchstone, "oft drew a dial from their poke."

Geo. V. Du NoYER. Antrim, 5th December, 1868.

very ancient




SIR, - I have read with the liveliest interest the report of our late annual meeting at Portmadoc, and think that the Association may justly be congratulated on the result. Though the meeting was small, there seems to have been much hearty good-will attending it, and the discoveries made, as well as the objects observed, must have amply repaid all members for the trouble they took to reach that distant but most romantic district. Evidently too we were most fortunate in our President, who did the honours of the meeting and infused spirit into it, in a manner worthy of the warmest praises. It is a fortunate circumstance for the county of Merioneth that Cors-y-gedol, one of its most historic seats, should have fallen into the hands of a possessor by whom it is so thoroughly appreciated, as well as restored to more than its pristine glory, after such a long period of desolation and neglect; still more that the antiquities of the estate and the surrounding district should at length be valued and preserved as their intrinsic worth and their importance as national monuments so justly demand.

It has struck me that the early remains observed in such numbers on the mountain-side near Cors-y-gedol, and also near Harlech, are deserving of careful and scientific investigation, and that the results of any such exanination should be given to the Association by means of our Journal, with all the plans, views, etc., required for their full illustration. I am struck with the extraordinary promise of primæval riches which this district affords, and cannot but conceive that the funds of the Association would be well spent if such a survey were made, and its results published. Evidently this part of North Wales contains much to throw new light upon the early history of the country, and I am sure that the efforts of many of our members would be well turned in that direction. We want a map or plan shewing all these early forts, carns, cromlechs, circles, and other remains near Cors-y-gedol; and also a similar map of the early town or camp at Muriau Gwyddelod above Harlech. Such surveys and such maps would worthily commemorate this meeting of the Association, and would be welcome to all antiquaries who feel interested in the early remains of Wales.

I may have some more observations on this topic to make on a future occasion; but, to one knowing the ground visited so well, and yet hindered from ever exploring it again by one of the direst visitations to which the human frame can be subject,—the discoveries made have been so exciting, that they have weaned me awhile from my sufferings, and forced me to intrude upon your pages. I am, sir,

AN ANTIQUARY. December 9th, 1868.




Sir,- In the vol. of 1850, p. 155, a correspondent informs the Editor of a Maen-hir, about three miles from Harlech and two from Llandanwg, bearing Ogham characters. This information attracted attention at the time; but nothing appears to have been ascertained about it since. The stone, it may be affirmed, does not exist at present, whatever it might have done twenty years ago; but, at least it is to be hoped, that some inquiries may be made about-for it may be lying under some hedge or some out of the way place, and known only to the cottagers of the district. The proving an Ogham stone to have existed on the north as well as on the south coast of Wales, would be of interest.

I am, sir, yours obediently, 30th Nov., 1868.




DEAR SIR, -Since the late pleasant meeting of the Association in Merionethshire, I have been informed that Mrs. Coulson, of Cors-ygedol, has discovered near the old road passing her house to Dolgellau, an incised stone, which appears to be of considerable interest. Rubbings have been taken of it, but owing to the roughness and irregularity of the surface, the results have not been satisfactory. I am informed also that the stone has been examined by Mr. Wynne, of Peniarth, and Mr. Wynne Ffoulkes, formerly one of the secretaries of the Association, who have both pronounced on its artificial character; and that there is no danger of a second Runamo discovery (see Wilson's Prehistoric Scotland, p. 313, first edition), which, after being translated and received as a most important historical evidence, turned out to be merely accidental and natural fissures and chippings of the stone. One learned authority has conjectured that the markings are decided runes; but then again others doubt this fact, and rather consider them to be rude delineations of animals. It is to be hoped that as perfect a fac-simile of the stone as can be procured may throw some light on the mystery.

I am, dear sir, your's obediently, DYFFRYN.



DEAR MR. EDITOR,—I was much struck with a statement made in the Report of the Portmadoc Meeting, namely, that a farm near Pwllheli, or rather near Four-crosses, had been called Cromlech from time immemorial, after an actual cromlech still standing upon it. I hope this remarkable statement can be proved by ancient deeds; but of this

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