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archbißop both in civil and ecclefiaftical Babylon for a new Metropolitan, whom matters, paying a very moderate tribute they obtained in the person of Mar to the Rajahs, in wbose territories they Abraham. But he had scarcely taken lived. They paid no tithes to the clergy, poffeffion of his Ste, when Mar Joseph but at their weddings they used to offer returned. The consequence was, that the tenth of the marriage gift to their all the Malabar Christians divided themchurches. At these teitivais they were selves into two parties, one adhering very profuse and ottentatious, and they to Mar Joleph, and the other to Mac celebrated them with great pomp ; it was Abraham. The former, however, pre. then principally hat they had occalion vailed and caused Abraham to be seized to make a new of the privileges granted in order to be sent to Europe. The them by one of the Perumals; as of the vessel in which he was, touched at Mobride and hridegroom riding upon eles fambique, where he found means to efphants, of having the bair ornamented cape, and from thence to get to Baby.ca with flowers of guld, of different musical over land, from whence he proceeded to inftruments playing, as also of fags of Rome, and, preterding to recant the different colours carried before them. Nestorian herely, he was newly ordained, They all wore swords and targets, and consecrated and loaded with the highest some of them had firelocks; they were ecclesiastical dignisies, though it aftergreat marksmen, and, from their eighth wards appeared that he was still a zealous year, used to frequent their firing schools. adherent to his old faith.

The girls were precluded from all The Portugeele clergy were much difinheritance, even if no fons were in the pleased with the conduct of Mar Jofeph, family. This fingular law, which is fo who, notwithstanding all his promises to contrary to all Malabar cultoms, proves the Queen, continued to govern his flock that the St. Thomé Christians were im- according to the tenets of Neltorius, and ported originally from Syria.

to prevent rather than promote a re-union In religion, they followed the do&trine with the Roman Catholics, fo that

а of Neftorius: they rejected the divine order for his imprisonment was made in nature of Christ, and called the Virgin the year 1567. He was accordingly Mary, only the Mother of Christ, not of second time transported, firit to Portugalia God: they maintained thať the Holy and afterwards to Rome, where he coca Gholt proceeded only from God: they trived to make his peace with the Pope; admisted no images of saints in their but before he could undertake a new voychurches, where the cross alone was to age to India, he died at Rome, on the eve be seen : they had only three facraments; of being made a cardinal. Baptisin, the Euchariit, and the Orders: Mar Abraham had in the mean time they did not believe in transubftantiation, arrived at Goa, with new authority froin nor in purgatory; the fainis they say are the Pope, but the archbishop De Menezes not admitted to the prelence of God, on examining his credentials, pretended but are kept in a third place till the day that Mar Abraham had deceived his holio of Judgment,

ness, and confined hiin in a convent, from Their priests were permitted to marry, which, however, he e!caped, and was reand the whole cereinony of marriage con ceived with exultations by all the St. tilts in tying a Itring round the girls Thomé Christians, and was left in quiet neck. They reckoned their Sunday from possession of his See till his death. Mean Saturday evening Velpers, till the first sures were, however, taken that no Syrian matin of Sunday, so that after sun-rise priest might in future find his way to they might work again.

the Malabar Christians, and as the Portia Such was the happy situation of the guele were completely matters of Ormuz, Christians of St. Thorné till the arrival and the whole navigation on this side of of the Portuguese in India, who finding India, they eafily prevented all intercanrle all mild mealures to reclaim them to the between the Neitorian Patiarch at BaRoman rites in vain, seized their arcibi. bylon, and the St. Thomé Chriftians at hop Mar Joseph, and lint him prisoner Angamalee. They land even accused to Portugal, but he had the art to ingra- of having drowned a new Syrian bishop tiate himself with the Queen, who per- in the year 1644 in the road to Cochir. mitted him to return, uyon promising to

Mar Abraham, died about the year 1997, bring about an union between his flock profeiling to the tast moment of his lile and the See of Rome.

his adherence to the Neftorian church, In the mean time the St. Thomé Chriss and his abhorrence of the tenets of the tians had applied to the then Patriarch of Popish religion.

Menezes

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Menezes resolved to visit in person the Nairs stript of most of their old preroga'Malabar Christians, who had elected a tives, and subject to almost the same priest of their own of the name of George. oppressions and extortions. The appearance of a man of his birth, Captain David Richardson bas presented rank, wealth, and power, as primate of to the same fociety an account of the India was decisive. He assembla molt Bazeegurs, a sect commonly denominated of the Syrian priests, and four elders Nuts, who are strictly speaking players from each village, and after some now or actors, from their Persian name of of disputation, he proceeded to dietate Razte-gur, which may be literally renthe law to them, and to appearance the dered a juggler ; but the appellation of Neitorians of Malabar were united to Nut extends to several tribes, and prothe Roman church.

perly belongs to many more; each party This re-union of the St. Thorné Chrif. having branched out and formed itself tiaris to the See of Rome was, however, into a diitinct sect, agreeably to the habits pe th:r general, nor fincerely lasting : for, of life or modes of subšttence which a thart ime after they found their way neceility and local circumstances may to the mountains of Travancore, where have induced them to adopt, as their own they revived the old doctrines and rites, peculiar calling or art. and ever fince they have kept up their The Bazeegurs are sub-divided into communication with the Jacobites and seven caks, but the difference seems only Nettoriars of Syria. At present there in name, for they live together and interare thirty-two churches of this defeription inarry as one people. They profefs 10 remaining, which are called Schismatic be Moosulmans, but have little knock Syrians by the Portuguese and Roman ledge of the prophet. They acknowclergy. They have a bishop, one Markedge a God, and in all their hopes and Thonie, whorelices at Narnaite. About fears address him, except when luch ad. 84 of the old St. Thomé churches remain dress might be supposed to interfere in united to the Roman Catholic religion, Tonyn's deparıment, a famous mufician and are governed by the archbishop of whom they consider as a fort of tutelary Cranganore, or as he styles himself, the deity; confequently they look up to him archbishop of the Malabar Christians of for success and safety in all their profefthe mountains. Since the death of the fronal exploits. These contift of playing Bast arehbishop, the governor of Goa, on various instruments, singing, dancing, who had formerly the nomination, ap- tumbling, &c. The two latter accompointed a Vicar General, he is a na. plishments are peculiar to the women of give of Malabar, of Syrian extraction, ihis tect. The notions of religion and a of the name of Thomé Enamakel. The future flate among this vagrant race, are united St. Thomé Christians retain only principally derived from their songs the peculiarity of the Chaldean language which are simple and beautiful. They bring till used in their churches, for are commonly the production of Kubeer, which they are furnithed with the necef a poet of great fame. On every occa

fion of doubt, they have a quotation 'The St. Thomé or Syrian Christians ready from their favourite bard; and in rever claimed the particular protection answer to any queries respecting the Aare of either the Portuguese or Dutch, but of the soul after death, the following considered themi:lves as fabjects of the Hanza is repeated : different Rajabs in whose dittricts they lived ; and as long as the old Hindoo

Nor soul nor love divine can die,

Although our frame mult perish here, fyftem lafted, and the former division of

Still longing liope poịnts to the sky; the country, under a variety of petsy

Thus sings the poet Das Kubeer. Rajahs, was preserved, they appear to have enjoyed the fame degree of freedom, They conceive one fpirit pervades ail eale, and confideration as the Nairs. nature, and that their soul being a par. But when the Rajahs of Travancore and ticle of that universal fpirit, will of Cochin had subjected to themselves all course rejoin it, when released from its the petty Rajalıs and chiefs, they elta- corporeal fackelş. blifned a molt oppressive despotili, in At all their feasts, men, women, and the room of the former mild limited children drink to excess

. Liquor with Oligarchy, and we cannot be surprized them is the summum bonum of life; every to behold the present wretched ftuation crime may be expiated by plentiful libaof those formerly fo flourishing Syrian tions of ftrong drink, and, in some cases, villages, fince we see the Bramins and to the opdinary fine, is added this pecu

fary books.

liar punishment of having their noses ing with a quartity of herbs and dried rubbed on the ground.

birds, and bevging from dor to door, Though profelling. Iamilm, they em- offer their fervices generally to the females ploy a Bruhman, who is an adept in only, in the cure of whole ailments astrology, to fix on a name for their they pretend to have a peculiar knowchildren, whom they permit to remain ledge. Should it to happen that they at the breast till five or fix years of age. do not return hoine lefore the juckals Their marriages are deferred to a later cry is heard in the evening, their fidelity period of life, in consequence of a daugh is suspected, and they fubje&t themselves ter being considered as productive pro- to the dispk afure of their husbands, and perty to the parents, by her professional are punished accordingly. abilities. The girls, who are merely The marriage . ceremonies are truly raught to dance and fing, have no restric- farcical ; but when the bride is delivered tion on their moral conduct ; but the into the hands of the bridegroom, he is chastity of the tumblers is ftri&tly en expected to behave kindly to her, and joined, until their ftations can be firpplied Me is reminded of the necessity of conby younger ones, trained up in the fame ducting hertelf as a good and obedient line. After the matrimonial ceremony is wife. The man then makes a mark over they no longer exhibit as public with red powder on her forehead, faying, dancers. A total change of conduct is “ this is my wedded wife.”. She repeats expected and generally ensues.

the same ceremony upon her husbands There are in and near Calcutta, five face. The merriment then begins, and sets, of thele people, and to each is ap- each endeavours to accomplish the foorest pointed a Surdar or manager, one of the business of intoxication, except the whom is considered as the chief or Nardar wife, who on that day is expected to reBoutah. The people of each set dre frain. A little after day-light the whole hired by the Surdar for a certain period, party prepare to set off for the brideafter which they are at liberty to join groom's house, and the dowry is deliverany o:her party. No person can established. Before the houlę stands an earthen a set without the fanction of the Nardar pot filled with water; and in it is placed Boutah, who receives a fourth of the à finall fresh branch of a Mangce tree; profiis, beldes a tax of two rupees an emblem of plenty. The mother which levied on the girls of each fet, comes forth with a lieve, coniaining rict, as often as they may have attracted the &c. which the waves round each of their notice of perfuns not of their own calt. heads three times, and touches their When the parties return from their ex. forebeads with it. The bridegroom then cursions, this money is paid to the Nardat leads the bride into the house where the Boutah, who convenes his people, and is received by the mother with many they continue eating and drinking till welcomes. The men and women again the whole is expended. When any of allemble, and in the evening Scenes of the Surdars are juspected of giving in an intoxication succeed, their greatest enjoyunfair statement of their profits, they ment consists in the grosszat indulgence of are brought to trial, and subjected to a the senfual appetites. fine for liquor, and if it be not imme Captain Richardson, after many other diately paid, the delinquent is haniihed particulars, Mews that the jugglers who from their society; his wife and children arrived in Europe about the 13th ceneven avoid him.

tury, and who introduced the viol wih The Budeea Nuts differ from the Bu. three strings, were of a race very similar zeegurs in some particulars. The men to what the Bazeegurs are at this day, are remarkably athletic, and adroit in in confirmation of which he introduces every kind of flight of hand, practising an extract from Doctor Burney's History juggling in all its branches. As tumo- of Muộc. He then draws a parallel lers, they exhibit not only fears of agi- between the Gipsies of Europe and these lity, but great instances of strength. Bazeegurs. They are both a wandering They inter their dead, and the only cere race, and have a language peculiar to mony seems to be, to forget their forrows themselves. The Gipsies have their king, by getting completely drunk immediately the Nuts their Nardar Boutah: they go afterwards. The women are not allowed in companies, and their employments are to witness their juggling exploits; they fimilar. They are both considered as bave a department allotted to themielves, thieves; and to both religion seems of nt ovhich consis of the practice of physic, concern. &c. they usually fally one in the mora

VARIETIES

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The Li-;

VARIETIES, LITERARÝ AND PHILOSOPHICAL.

Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign.

Authentic Communications for this Article will always be thankfully rejecved.
E are happy to inform the Public, This class is peculiarly interesting, as

that some valuable Manuscripts; many of the volumes are interleaved comprising various Letters from the

pen

of with MSS. interpretations by the Mifa Mr. RICHARDSON, the aur hor of Cla fionaries, risfa, Grandifun, &c. are in the posseflion 1. Xam, or Upper Class; containing of his family, and will speedily be pub- the celebrated five kim, with various lilled.

commentaries ; called the 1. Ye.Kim. An extensive and valuable library of 2. Xu-Kim. 3. Xi Kim. 4. Li ki, and Chinese books has lately been received 5, Chun-çicu. To this class belongs also front Italy by Dr. MONTUCCI, and the Hi-çu, or Commentary, by Confumay be seen by the literati on apply. cius, upon the Ye-kim, or Exagramms fuping lo'shat gentleman at Pancras. It posed to have been written by Fo-hi about is for sale, and conlists of nearly twelve 2900 years before Christ. This collection hundred volumes, which the learned pof- has no less than eighteen various editions feffor has labelled and arranged under the and commentaries. eight following classes.*

21 Chum, or the class between the up1. KUON-HOA, or the Classical Chinese per and lower ; containing i he other books

Language, as written and spoken at of Confucius and his disciples. The
Court by the Mandarines, &c. This ancient Gloffıry Ulh bia.
class is divided into the three following the Cheu-li; the Kia-li ; and the works of
branches.

the celebrated philofopher Chu çu. 105 1. Chuen çu, or Ancient Characters, 3. Hia, or the Lower Clats; containeontaining four Dictionaries, each upon ing the works of Lao çu, and other philo, a different plan, and often quoted in the forbers of the sect Tau-fu

-108 Memoires des Milionaries de Pekin: see all. Y, or Mythology; containing the also the Philofophical Transactions, vol. ries and superftitions of the Bunzes. lix. Volumes

Volumes 33

71 2, Chim-çil, or Modern Characters, as IV. Su, or History, which is divided inta commonly printed and written. Con

three main branches. taining twelve Dictionaries, each differ 1. Su-ki, or Historical Periods ; emferent. Two of them are MSS. - bracing the Univerlal and particular Hifa

92 3. Ju-ven, or Works of Literature ; tory of the several Dynasties, and Chro. containing a Treatise on the Art of Poe nology. Volumes

134 try. Three Works upon Antiquities.

2. Yu-tul, or Geography, including Two Collections of Fables, and a Glof. Itineraries and Travels

32 fary. Volumes

63

3. Pe-kia, or Biography; which conII. Kim, † or Sacred Books. These are

tains several interesting works, particu. divided into the three following classes. Jarly the Lives of the Seventy-two Disci

ples of Confucius.

89 * Dr. Montucci follows the Portuguese

V. Liu, or Law; containing the Code of orthography in writing the Chinese words,

Laws; the proceedings of the Six Pu, or as the inost approved by Dr. HAGER and

Tribunals. Among theie volumes is a others. The hyphens between the Chi

manuscript in 12 volumes containing the sese words are only put to avoid confusion in

Statutes of the Present Tartaric Dynally pronouncing and reading.

Ta-çin.

53 ☆ It is to be observed, that the title of VI. Sim-li, or Natural Philosophy, includ, Kim is given to all those works which have ing the celebrated work published under been collected since the general conflagration Yum-lo, about 1400 years after Chrift; of books, which was ordered by Xi-boam-ti, alio Mathematics; fingular Plates on of the Dynasty of Çin, 212 years before

all the Branches of Experimental PhiChrift. So that the contents of them must

lofophy. The celebrated Cheu-pi-kim, or have been written at least before the end of

a Treatise on Geometry, lupposed of the preceding Dynasty Cbau, which was ex

the age of Y'u ihe Great, about 2300 tinct in the year 250. Before Christ. Some years before Christ. Volumes of the third clars are strongly suspected to be VII. GA-XU, a Coliection of Miscellaneffurious,

cus Authors. Vclumes

89

- 53

VIII. SI JU. VEN,

VIII. S:- JU-VEN, or Works of the Miss reign Region. An elegant volume, con,

tionaries, called by the Chinele, Occi- taining an account of the Chinese Embar: dental Literature. This class contains fy, in the latter years of the reign of KAMfome works of Father Ricci, Aloifius, ii, to Peter The Great, at Moscow, &c. and a learned Treatise on Aftro 8. Sin-chi-y-fiam-tu, or New Engravnomy in 10 vols. with MSS. Platus. ings, containing Plates of the most im. Volumes

38 portant Figures, being a Series of Prinis

Total 1 1 82 on all Branches of Natural Philosophy. Dr. Montucci obligingly shews in Dr. FOTHERGILL, of the Western this collection a number of interesting vo.

Dispensary, has in the Press a Trealumes, of the remotelt antiquity, and the tise upon a very singular and painful af. only copies in Europe ;-at least they are fection of the nerves of the face, called not to be found in the printed Catalogues by certain French writers and some others, of the Chinese Collections, in the library Tic Douloureux. of the National Institute, nor in the library Mr. DAWSON TURNER has now in of the Imperial Academy at St. Peterf- the Press, and will publish in about a burg.-The following works are parti- month, a small work on Botany, written cularly curious :

in Latin, and accompanied with coloured 1. Lo*-xu-chim-go, or the Ancient Clas- engravings: it will be entitled Species fical Characters rendered into their per- Muscorum Frondosorum Hibernia, and is fe&t Chim form (see above, class I. n. 2.) intended as an Enchyridion of the Molles. This work is in five large quarto volumes,

The publication of the works of the twelve inches by seven, on superfine paper; late ARCHDEACON BLACKBURNE, the every ancient character is exhibited upon anthor of the Confessional, in seven volumes, a large scale, and then reduced into its may be expected to appear in the courte of modern shape.

a month or two, with the Archdeacon's 2. Poei-ven iun-fu, or Combinations of Memoirs of his own Life and Writings; Composition and harmonic Similarities of and several original letters and papers, Sound, being a Dictionary of Rhymes, by way of notes or appendix to the Mewherein every Character is shewn in all

moirs; in which much curious and intepoffible Combinations with Oihers, for relting matter will be brought to light, which Authorities are always quoted. The editor, (F. B. Richmond, Yorkshire,)

3. Po-ku-ti; or Plates on Learned An- will be much obliged to any person, who tiquities; a work in 20 vols. Containing can fpeedily communicate to him the a numerous Series of Vases, Musical In- Archdeacon's answer to the Proposal made ftruments, Metallic Mirrors, &c. &c.

to him from the Congregation at the Old with ancient Inscriptions exhibited after- Jewry, in November 1766, on the vacancy. wards in modern Characters. The whole occasioned by the death of Dr. Chandler. is arranged in the order of time, com.

A work of singular importance to the mencing with the most ancient Dy- practical Agriculturist will make its apnatty down to the Han, about 200 years pearance in a few days. Mr. Arthur before Chrift,

YOUNG proposes to favour the world 4. Cheu ye-çiuen-xu, or The most per- with a fifth edition, corrected to the present fect Writings on the re-kim, by Cheu time, of his well-known Farmer's Calena Kum, a celebrated law-giver who flourish. dar. This work has been out of print ed about 1122 before Christ,

for several years; and copies have been 5. Lo-kim tu, or Plates on the Six Kim bought at a very enormous price whenever of the Fira Clals, (see above, class 11. they could be met with: Mr. Young, n. s.) confiling of fix immense folios, fix has, however, been induced to prepare a teen incl.es by ten, wherein all subjects new and enlarged edition, which includes mentioned in those Kim are exbibi'ed in a every modern improvement and discovery fplendid series of Engravings on Wood.

in the practice of agriculture. 6. Tao tp-kim, or the Rule of Virtue,

The Trufees of the British Mufeum a celebrated Kim hy Laoçu, contemporary have just purchased Dr. COMBE's inva10 Confucius. A manuscript Latin Ver- luable Collection of early English Bibles, fion of this very curious work may be the only complete one in the kingdom. seen in the library of the Royal Society. A friend of the late Rev. HUGH FAR7. 77.39-10, or Description of a Fo

MER is preparing for the preis, Memoirs The collections of ciaffical characters of that learned Author; to which will

be added a curious piece of his, never beare Ailed Lo-xu or Six writings, with an allation to the fix rules of contructing charac. fore printed, being the only one of his ters, according !o the method of the first in- manuscripts which was prelerved from ine Ventorr. See the Mim. des Millionaires,

flames. MONTHLY MAG, No. 111.

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