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PREMIUMS offered by the SocIETY, instituted at London, for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, for the Year 1804.

to the PUBLIc.

HE chief objects of the Society are to promote the Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce of this kingdom, by giving rewards for all such useful Inventions, Discoveries, and Improvements, (though not mentioned in this book), as tend to that purpose; and, in pursuance of this plan, the Society have already expended Fifty thousand pounds, advanced by voluntary subscriptions of their members, and legacies bequeathed. o . The manner in which this money has been distributed may be seen by applying to the Secretary or other officers of the Society, at their house in the Adelphi. The Register of the Premiums and Bounties they have given will show the very great advantages which the Public have derived from this Institution. The meetings of the Society are held every Wednesday, at seven o'clock in the evening, from the fourth Wednesday in October to the first Wednesday in June. The several Committees meet on other evenings in #. week during the session. - - In order still farther to promote the laudable views of this Society, it may be necessary to explain the mode by which its members continue to be elected. Each member has the privilege, at any weekly meeting of the Society, of proposing any person who is desirous to become a member, provided such proposal is signed by three menbers of the Society. Peers of the Realm or Lords of Parliament are, on their being proposed, immediately ballotted for; and the name, with the addition and place of abode, of every other person proposing to become a member, is to be delivered to the Secretary, who is to read the same, and properly insert the name in a list, which is to be hung up in the Society's room until the next neeting ; at which time such person shall be ballotted for; and, if two-thirds of the members, then voting, ballot in his favour, he shall be deemed a perpetual member, upon payment of Twenty Guineas at one payment; or a subscribing member, upon payment of any sum not less than Two Guineas annually. Every member is entitled to vote and be concerned in all the transactions of the Society, and to attend and vote at the several Committees. He has also the privilege of recommending two ersons as Auditors, at the weekly meeting of the Society; and, by addressing a note to the ousekeeper, of introducing his friends to examine the various models, machines, and productions, in different branches of arts, manufactures, and commerce, for which rewards have been bestowed; and to inspect the magnificent series of moral and historical paintings, so happily contrived and completed by JAM is BA R Ry, Esq. which, with some valuable busts and statues, decorate the Great Room. He has likewise the use of a valuable Library; and is entitled to the annual Volume of the Society's Transactions. The time appointed for admission to the paintings or models, is from ten to two o'clock, Sundays and Wednesdays excepted.

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to be produced to the Society on or before the first Tuesday in January, 1805. 5. Ascert A1 N1 NG THE BEst Mernon of raising Oaks. To the person who shall ascertain in the best manner, by actual experiments, the comparative inerits of the different modes of raising oaks for timber, either from acorns set on land properly dug or tilled, from acorns set by the spade or dibble, without digging or tillage, either on a smooth surface, or among bushes, fern, or other cover; or from young plants previously raised in nurseries, and transplanted; regard being had to the expense, growth, and other respective advantages of the several methods; the gold nedal. The accounts, and proper certificates that not less than one acre has been cultivated in each mode, to be produced to the Society on or before the first Tuesday in November, 1804. 6. Chesnuts. For having sown or set, between the first of October, 1802, and the first of April, 1803, the greatest quantity of dry loamy land, not less than six acres, with Spanish chesnuts, with or without seeds, cuttings, or plants of other trees, adapted to such soil, at the option of the candidate; and for effectually fencing and preserving the same, in order to raise timber; the gold medal. 7. For the second greatest quantity, not less than four acres, the silver medal, Certificates of sowing or setting, agreeably to the above conditions, and that there are not fewer than three hundred chesnut plants, in a thriving state, on each acre, to be delivered to the Socicty on or before the first Tuesday in January, 1805. 8. Elst. For having planted the greatest number of the English elm, not less than eight thousand, between the twenty-fourth of June, 1802, and the twenty-fourth of June, 1803; and for having effectually fenced and preserved the sane, in order to raise timber ; the gold medal. 9. For the second greatest number, not less than five thousand, the silver medal. Certificates of having planted, agreeably to the above conditions, that the plants were in a healthy and thriving state two years at least after making the plantation, and specitying the distance of the plants, to be delivered to the Society on or before the first Tuesday in \pril, 1805. 10. LA ach. For having planted out, between the twenty-fourth of June 1801, and the twenty-fourth of June, 1302, the greatest immber of larch-trees, not fewer than five thousand; and for having effectually fenced and preserved the same, in order to raise timber ; the gold medal. 11, For the next greatest number, not fewer than three thousand, the silver medal. Certificates of the mujaber of plants, that

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they were in a healthy and thriving state two years at least after they were planted out, with a general account of the methods used in making the plantation, to be delivered to the Society on or before the last Tuesday in December, 1804. 12, 13. The same premiums are extended one year farther. Certificates to be produced on or before the last Tuesday in December, 1805. N. B. The larch-trees may be either planted, mixed with other trees, or by themselves, as may best suit the convenience of the planter. 14. Osiers. To the person who shall have planted, between the first of October, 1803, and the first of May, 1804, the greatest quantity of land, not less than five acres, with those kinds of willows, commonly known by the names of osier, Spaniard, new kind, or French, fit for the purpose of basket-makers, not fewer than twelve thousand plants on each acre ; the gold medal, or thirty guineas. 15. For the second greatest quantity of land, not less than three acres, the silver medal, or ten guineas. Certificates of the planting, and that the plants were in a thriving state five months at least after the planting, to be produced to the Society on or before the last Tuesday in November, 1804. w 16. Alden. For having planted, in the year 1801, the greatest number of alders, not less than three thousand; the gold medal. Certificates of the number of plants, and that they were in a thriving state two years at least after being planted, to be delivered to the Society on or before the last Tuesday in December, 1804. 17, Ash. . For having sown or set, in they year 1801, the greatest quantity of land, not less than six acres, with ash for timber, with or without seeds, cuttings, or plants, of such other trees as are adapted to the soil; the gold medal. 18. For the next greatest quantity, not less than four acres, the silver medal. Certificates of the sowing or setting, agreeably to the above conditions, that there are not fewer than one hundred ash plants on each acre, in a thriving and healthy condition, two years at least after the sowing or setting, with a general account of the methods used in making the plantation; to be delivered to the Society on or before the last Tuesday in December, 1804. 19, 20. The same premiums are extended one year farther. Certificates to be delivered on or before the last Tuesday in December, 1805. N. B. It is the particular wish of the Society, that such lands only as are not calculated for growing corn, should be employed for the purposes specified in these advertise7ments.

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21. Forest-rmffs. To the person who shall have inclosed and planted, or set, the greatest number of acres (not less than ten) of Jand, that is incapable of being ploughed, such as the borders of rivers, the sides of precipices, and any land that has too many rocks, or that is not calculated to repay the expense of tillage, owing to the stiffness or poverty of the soil, the surface being too hilly, incuntainous, or otherwise unfit for tillage, with the best sorts of forest-trees, namely, oak, Spanish chesnuts, ash, elm, beech, alder, willow, larch, spruce and silver fir, with or without screens of Scotch fir, adapted to the soil, and intended for timber-trees, between the first of October, 1801, and the first of April, 1802; the gold medal. 22. For the second greatest quantity of land, not less than seven acres; the silver medal, or ten guineas. 23. For the third greatest quantity of land, not less than five acres, the silver medal. particular account of the methods used in Inaking and managing the plantations, the nature of the soil, the probable number of each sort of plants, together with proper certificatcs that they were in a healthy and thriving state two years at least after making the plantation, to be delivered to the Society on or before the first Tuesday in November, 1804. 24, 25, 26. The same premiums are ext tended one year farther. Certificates to be produced on or before the first Tuesday in No

s vember, 1805.

N. B. With the above forest-trees, the seeds, cuttings, or plants, of such other trees as are adapted to the soil, and proper for underwood, may or may not be intermixed.

N. B. The candidates for planting all kinds gf trees are ts produce certificates that the respective plantations are properly fenced and secured, and particularly to state the condition of the plants at the time of signing such certificates. Any information which the candidates for the foregoing premiums may choose to communicate, relative to the methods made use of in forming the plantations, or promoting the growth of the several trecs, or any other observations that may have occurred on the subject, will be thankfully received,

27. SecuRING PLANTATIONs of TIMBERTREEs, AND Hedge-Rows. To the person who shall give to the Society the most satisfactory account, founded on experience, of the most effectual and least expensive method of securing young plantations of timber-trees, and hedge-rows, from hares and rabbits, as well as sheep and larger cattle, which at the same time shall be least subject to the depredations of wood-stealers, the silver medal, or ten gui

neas. The accounts, and certificates of the effi cacy of the method, to be produced to the Society on or before the first Tuesday in No. vember, 1804. 28. The same premium is extended one year farther. The accounts and certificates to be produced on or before the first Tuesday in November, 1805. 29. CoMPARATIve TILLAGE. For the most satisfactory set of experiments, made on not less than eight acres of land, four of which to be trench-ploughed,” and four to be ploughed in the usual manner, in order to ascertain in what cases it may be advisable to shorten the operations of tillage, by adopting one trench-ploughing, for the purpose of burying the weeds, instead of the method, now in common use, of ploughing and harrowing the land three or four times, and raking the weeds together and burning them; the gold medal. It is required that every operation and expense attending each mode of culture be fully and accurately described, and that proper certificates of the nature and condition of the land on which the experiments are made, together with a circumstantial account of the appearance of the subsequent crops during their growth; and also of the quantity and weight of the corn and straw under each inade of culture, or, in case of a green crop, the weight of an average sixteen perches, be produced to the Society on or before the first Tuesday in February, 1805. 30. CoMPARATIVE Culture of WHEAT, BROAD-cast, DR11.LED, AND DIBBLED. . For the best set of experiments, made on not less than twelve acres, four of which to be sown broad-cast, four drilled, and four dibbled, the two latter in equidistant rows, in order fully to ascertain which is the most advantageous mode of cultivating wheat; the gold medal, or thirty guineas. It is required that every operation and expense of each mode of culture be fully described; and that proper certificates of the nature and condition of the land on which the experiments are made, together with an account of the produce of the corn, the weight per bushel, and also of the straw, be produced to the Society on or before the first Tuesday in February, 1805. 31. SPRING WHEAT. To the person who, between the 10th of January and the 10th of April, 1804, shall cultivate the greatest quantity of wheat, not less than ten acres; the gold medal. It is required, that the time of sowing and reaping be noticed; also a particular account of the species, cultivation, and expense attending it, with proper certificates of the nature and condition of the land on which the experiments were made, and the name of the crop, if any, which the same land bore the preceding year; together with an account of the produce, the weight per Winchester bushel; and a sample, not less than a quart, be produced to the Society on or before the second Tuesday in February, 1805. **It is supposed that sowing wheat early in the spring will not only allow more time to till the land, but less for the growth of weeds; thus rendering the wheat as clean as a barley crop, and exhausting the soil much less than autummal sowing. It may be seen in the 19th volume, that the wheat usually sown in autumn may be put into the ground, with great success, so late as February or March, thus giving time to clear the ground from turnips, or to avoidabad season.

* It is a common practice among gardeners, when they have a piece of very foul land, to dig it two spits, or about cighteen inches deep, shovelliag the weeds to the bottom. This they call trenching.

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32. Brass AND Whear. To the person who shall have dibbled or drilled, between the 1st of December, 1803, and the 1st of April, 1804, the greatest quantity of land, not less than ten acres, with beans, in equidistant rows, and hoed the intervals twice or oftencr; and shall have sown the same land with wheat in the autumn of the year 1804; the gold medal. It is required that an account of the sort and |. tity of beans, the time of dibbling or drilling, and of reaping or mowing them, the produce per acre thrashed, the expense of dibbling or drilling, hand or horse hoeing, the distance of the rows, and the quality of the soil, together with certificates of the number of acres, and that the land was afterwards actually sown with wheat, be produced on or before the second Tuesday in March, 1805. * 33. BEANs. To the person who, in the

car 1803, shall discover and cultivate, either i. the drill or dibbling method, on not less than five acres, a species of horse-beans or tick-beans, that will ripen their seeds before the 21st of August; the silver medal, or ten guineas. It is required that a particular account of the bean, the cultivation, and the expense attending it, with proper certificates of the nature and condition of the land on which the experiments arc made, together with an account of the produce, the weight per Winchester bushel, and a sample of not less than a quart, be produced to the ciety on or before the first Tuesday in December, 1801. It is apprehended that, if a bean should be brought into cultivation with the habits of the hotspur, or other early peas, that it would, in a great measure, escape the danger arising from the collier-insect, or other insects, and allow more time for the farmers to till the land for the subsequent crop of wheat. The accounts and certificates to be delivered on or before the o in December, 1804.

34. The same premium is extended one year farther. The accounts and certificates to be delivered on or before the first Tuesday in IJecember, 1805. - * - -

35. Cox PARAtive Culture of TURNrps.

For the best set of experiments made on not less than eight acres of land, four of whichtobe sown.

broad-cast, and four drilled, to ascertain whether it is most advantageous to cultivate turnips by sowing them broadcast and hand-hoeing thern, or £y drilling them in equidistant rows, and hand or horse hoeing the intervals; the silver medal, or ten guineas. It is required.that every operation and expense of each mode of colture be fully described, and that proper cer. tificates of the nature and condition of the land on which the experiments were made, together with the weight of the turnips grown, on a far average sixteen perches of land, under each mode of culture, be produced to the Society on or before the first Tuesday-in March. 1805

The object which the Society have in view in offering this premium is experimentally to ascertain the most advantageous of growing turnips. To do this in a satisfactory manner, both the drilled and broad-cast crops should have the advantage of the most perfect cultiva

tion, consequently the drilled crops should have

the intervals between the rows worked by the

horse or handhoe, or by both these implements:

and the rows should be either weeded or hand.

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hoed, or both weeded and hand-hoed. The

broadcast crop should have every advantage which weeding and hand-hoeing can give r. consistently with leaving the soil a flat surface. 36. The same premium is extended one year farther. Certificates to be produced on of be. fore the first Tuesday in March, 1806. 37. PARsNirs. To the person who, in the year 1804, shall cultivate the greatest quar

tity of land, not less than five acres, with ,

parsnips, for the sole purpose of feeding eattle or sheep; the gold medal. Certificates of the quantity of land so cultivated, with a par. ticular account of the nature of the soil and weight of the produce on sixteen perches, and also of the condition of the cattle or sheep fed with the parsnips, and the advantages resultino from the practice, to be produced to the Society on or before the second day in February, 1805. 38. Buck Wirrat. To the person who shall cultivate the greatest quantity of land with buck wheat, not less than thirty acres; the gold medal. It is required that the time of sowing and reaping be noticed ; also a particular account of the species, cultivation, and expense attending it, the manner of reaping it, thrashing it, and housing the grain; with proper certif. cates of the nature and eondition . land on which the experiments were made, and the name of the crop, if any, which the same land bore the preceding year, together with an account of the produce, and a sample of the seed, not less than a quart, be produced to the Society on or before the second Tuesday in January, 1805, - 39. For the next greatest quantity, not less than fifteen acres, on similar conditions; the silver medal, Information respecting its application to the feeding of cattle, hogs, and

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