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structure, the same direction, and the same schistous cordillera of Maniquare and inclination of the Atrata. The three hol- Paria only by the Cerro de Meapire, lows, or valleys of Caracas, Aragua, and which, analogous to the branches of ToMonai, are remarkable on this account,' rito and los Teques, which separa'e the that the level of them is above the surface basons of Monai, Arigua, and Caracas, of the sea ; they become lower by grada- extends north and fouth from Guacharo tions, and the highest step is the eastern, and Catouaro, to the myotain Paria, and which may serve as a proof that they were separates the valley of (the dried. formed at an earher period than the Lla. up bank of the Gulf of Cariaco) from the nos, whose declivity proceeds from eart to valley of St. Boniface, which formerly welt, like the while continent of South belonged to the Golfo Tritte. It will be America. By repeated barome:ric mea seen hercafter, that the accumulation of surement I found the height of the val. calcareous formation on the eastern part leys of Caracas to be 416 toises, of Ara- of the coast of this country feems to have gua 212 toises, above the furtace of the been more exposed to earthquakes; and sea ; the Llanos of Monai, the weitern ba- that the Cerro de Mea pire, at the time of fon, appears to have an elevation uf no the irruption of the Gulf of Cariaco, and more than eighty or one hundred toises.- the Golfo Triste, prevented the water The valley of Caracas has once been a from converting the land of Araya and lake, which formed for itself an efflux the ridge of Paria in'o an island. through the Quebrada de Tipe, Catia, The declivity of the cordillera of the and Rio Mamon ; the bason of Aragua coast of Venezuela is gentler towards the appears, on the other hand, to have be. fouth than towards the north, which is come dry by gradual evaporation ; for particularly str king when one descends the remains of the old water (loaded with from the heights of Guigue, through St. muriate of lime,) are till seen in the lake Juan, Parapara, and Ortiz, towards the of Valencia,' which becomes less every Mera de Paja, which belongs to the great year, and discovers islands which are Llano de Calabozo. The northern de. known under the name of Aparecidas.- clivity is everywhere very steep, and The height of the cordillera of the coast there is scarcely found, Mont Blanc exis commonly from 600 to 800 toises ; the cepied, above Courmayeur, a highest peaks, Sierra de Nevada de Meri. frightful precipice than the perpendicular da and the Silla de Caracas, (to which we wall of Silla de Caracas, beyond Caraval. undertook a laborious journey with our ledo, which rises to the height of 1300 instruments,) are 2350 and 1316 toises in toises. An accurate measurement of this height. To the welt they always become wall of rock was of great importance to lower, and the height of Cape Codera is navigators, as they could find its distance only 176 toises. The Macanao, on the from the coast only by taking the angle illand Margaretha, which I measured tri- of its elevation : its longitude, therefore, gonometrically, is not more in height than of 60° 37' 32" west from Paris will en 342 toises ; but this speedy depression able them io discover it. takes place only in the primitive moun.. The phenomenon of a more gentle detains of the cordillera. On the eastern clivity towards the south seems to contracoalt secondary accumulations of lime diet the obfervations made in ocher cordil. rise from Cape Unare to a more confider- leras of the earth, as it is asserted that ahle height than the gneis and micaceous they all decline more abruptly towards schiftus ; these calcareous rocks, which the south and weit. This contrad ction, are covered with sanditone of a calcareous however, is only apparent; as the northbase, and which accompany the cordillera ern part of the cordillera, during the great of the coast in its southern declivity, are cataftrophe which produced the Gulf of very low on the side towards Cura, but of Mexico, was torn away by the force rife' in a mass towards the eastern extremi. of the water ; and therefore the northern ty of the continent.

declivity might at that time be gentler In Bergantin they are 702 toises high, than the fouthein. in Coccollard 392, in Cucurucho du Tu If the form of the coast be considered, miniquiri (the highelt summits of the pro- it appears to be pretty regularly indented. vince of Cumana) 976 toises, and the py- The headlands of Tres Puntas, Codera, ramid of the Guacharo rises above 820 S. Roman, and Chichibacoa, on the west, toiles: from Cape Unare they form a le- from Cabo de la Vela, form a row of pro. parate ridge of mountains, in which the montories, the western of which runs more original ridge totally disappears; they to the north than the eastern. To the are connected also with the micaceous windward of each of these capes a creek MONTHLY MAG. No. 113.




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has been formed ; and one cannot help Vichada, Zama, Guaviere, and Ymerida,
feeing, in this singular formation, the in the longitude of 70° west from Paris,
action of the tropical currents, which between the high lummits of Uniama and
may be called the currents of the earth's Cunavami. They form the Raudals of
rotation ; an action which Mews itielf also Atures and Maypuré, tremendous water-
in the direction of the coast from Cuba, falls, which afford the only passage by
St. Donungo, Porto Rico, Yucatan, and which one can penetrate into the interior
Honduras, as in the series of the Wind- of the land in the valley of the River
ward IIands, Grenada, Orchila, Rocca, Amazons.
Aves, Buenos-Ayres, Curaçoa, and Aru There Cordill ras of the Cataracts rise
ba, the ruins of the cordillera from Cape from the longitude of 70°, and spread out
Chichibacoa, which are all parallel to in such a manner that ihey comprehend
the equa:or. It was this headland of Chi. the whole immense tract of country be.
chibacoa, notwithitanding its inconsider tween the rivers Caura, Erevato, Cavony,
able height, which, by its resistance to the Paraguamusi, Ventuari, Jao, Padamo,
influx, preserved the kingdom of New and Manariche, and then ascend south
Grenada from losing so much land as the towards the sources of the Pasimona, Cą.
general government of Caricas.

chevaynris, and Cababury, towards the The second original cordillera of South forests, where the Portugueze, penetrat. Amer:ca, which I have called the cordil. ing into the Spanish diatricts, collect the lera of the Cataracts of Orinoco, is yet best sarsaparilla known (Smilax Sarsapa. very little known. During the journey rilla. Linn.). In this district the cordil. which we made on the Black River, toleras of the Cataracts are above one hunthe borders of the Great Bara, we tra- dred and twenty miles in breadth. Their velled more than two hundred leagues, continuation more towards the east, befirst from north to fouth, from Cerro de tween the longitude of 689 and 60% welt Uruana to Atabapo and Tuamini; then from Paris, is little known. I proceeded from welt to east, from the mouths of the with astronomical instruments only, as Ventuari to Vulcan de Duida, which I far as Rio Guapo, which discharges itself have found to be in latitwde zo 13' 26", into the Orinoco, opposite the Cerro de la and longitude 600 34' ?" west from Paris, Cauclilla, in longitude. 68° 33' west from Since the journey of Messrs. Ituriaga and Paris. The Indians of Catarapeni and Solano, a passage over these cordilleras, Maquiritares, who rebde in the small which


be called allo Parima or Do- miilion of Elineralde, came fifteen miles rado, (Golden) a name which has occa- further east over the moun:ains Guanaja fioned lo much misfortune in America, and Yamariquin to the Canno Chiguire ; and so much ridicule in Europe, has been but neither the Europeans, nor Indians possible ; but as all the European sertle, with whom Europeans have had any in. ments on the Alto Orinoco, and the Rio tercourse, are acquainted with this fource Negro, (Black River,) contain at this of the Orinoco, which is here called Canno tiine no inore than four hundred Indian Paragua, and is scarcely 150 or 200 toiles families; and as the way from Esmeralle in breadth, whereas at Boca de Apuré, to Erevato and Caura has been totally lost, in latitude 7° 32' 20", it is 4632 toises, our researches in a land so little civilized

as I myself found. The wildness of presented more difficulties than Condamine the Indians of Guaicas, who are only experienced during his tedious navigation four feet in height, but who are a very on the river Amazon, the banks of which white and warlike people, and particularly for many years have been inhabited.

the lavage state of the Guajarib .s, greater The cordillera of the Cataracts, or of men-eaters than any of the other natious Pariina, separates itself from the Andes which we visi:ed, prevent any one from of Quito and Popayan, in the longitude of penetrating over the finall cataracts from 30 1Q 6°. It extends from west to (Raudal de Guajaribos,) east from Chi. cast, from Paramo de Tuquillo and St. guire, unless a military expedition were Martin, or the sources of the Guaviare, undertaken on purpose. But by the won. the theatre of the gallant deeds of Philip derful journey indertaken by D. Antonio de Urre, and the old residence of th: Or- Santos, who married Opotho, and who neguas, through Morocote, Piramena, dressed sometimes as a Carib, and someand Macuco, stretching through the times as a Macacy, whose languages he country of the Indiars of Guajibus, Sigi; fpoke, fron, Orinoco (the mouth of the Dagueres, and Poigraves, according to Rio Caronis) to the finall lake Parima and the direction of the great rivers Meta, the river Amazon, we have obtained in


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formation respe&ting the continuation of cliV.-A HINT to HARD STUDENTS.the cordillera of the Cataracts. Under (From Mr. Whiston's Memoirs of his Life the latitude of from 4° to go and longi and Writings, written by himself in the tude 63', it becomes so narrow that it 79th, Soth, Sist, and 82d Years of his is scarcely fixty miles in breadth. It air Age.) sumes here the name of Cerrania de Qui “ While I was an undergraduate, an miropaca and Pacaraimo, and forms a accident happened to me, which may deserve chain of not very high ridges, by which to be here related, for the caution and bethe waters were divided. The water of nefit of others in the like circumitances.the northern declivity, the Nocapray, Pa. I one summer observed that my eyes did Taguamuci, Benamo, and Mazurini, flow not fee as usual, but dazzled after an . towards the Orinoco and Rio Esquibo; the awkward manner; upon which I imaginwaters of the southern, the Rio Curuicana, ed this might arise only from my too much Parime, Madari, and Mao, pour them- application to my studies ; and I thought felves into the River Amazon. Some de- proper to abate of that application for a grees further towards the east, the cor- fortnight, in hopes of recovering my dillera again extends in breadth as it af- usual fight by walking during that time cends southwards towards the Canno Pa- much abroad in the green grass and green rara along the Mao. It is here that the fields, but found myself disappointed, Dutch give to the Cerro d'Ucuamo the which occasioned fome terror to me, efpemagnificent name of the Gold Mountain, cially because of my father's lots of fight or Dorado, because it consists of a very before. At this time I met with an ac. thining micaceous schistus, à fossil which count, either in conversation or in writing, has brought into celebrity the small island that Mr. Boyle had known of a person of Ypamucena in i he Lake of Parima, who had new-whited the wall of his study, (To be continued.)

or chamber, upon which the sun shone, and used to read in that light, and there

by lost his right for a time, till upon hangFor the Montbly Magazine. ing the place where he Audied with CANTABRIGIANA.

green, he recovered it again ; which was

exactly my own cale, in a less degree, CLIII.-THEOLOGICAL MATTERS. both as to the caufe and the remedy for

LL monaltic inftitutions have mani. I and my chamber-fellow had newly whita fcholaftic divinity ; and it is not surpriz- afternoon-fun hone, and where I used to

read. ing, that our present colleges, the offspring

I therefore retired to my study, of those foundations, should bear, in this and hung it with green, by which means respect, some resemblance to their parents;

I recovered my usual fight, which, God for every body knows, that our present be praised, is hardly worsé now, that I academical inftitutions rose, as the young perceive, at four-score years of age, than phænix from the ashes of its mother, out

it was in my youthful days." of the ruins of monasteries. Let this LADY MARGARET, the FOUNremark he received as an apology for in DRESS of ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE, troducing so much polemical matter in (From Baker's MS. History of that College.) thefe papers : the order of events was fol. lowed :

“ She was daughter of John Beau

fort, Duke of Somerset, grandson of John Hæ tibi erant artes.


of Gaunt, and so descended from Ed. Hitherto we have introduced Lollardism, ward III. ; consort of Edmund Tudor, Catholicism, Puritanism, Methodism, Earl of Richmond, son of Catharine Trinitarianism, Arianism, Socinianism, of France, and so allied to the Crown of &c. Neither the one nor the other is ef- France ; and mother of Henry VII: sential to the academical body, any more King of England, from whom all our than rheumatism to the human constitu- Kings of England, as from his elder tion ; but all are only accidental daughter Margaret, who bore her name, On some future occasion, Deism, Cal- all the Kings of Scotland are ever since vinism, Arminianism, and even Judaism, descended. And though she herself was fall be brought forward : and the reader never a Queen, yet her fon, if he had

any will then perceive that the Cantabrigiana lineal title to the crown, as he derived it has not been infected at least with the from her, fo at her death Me had thirty herely of favouritism,

Kings and Queens allied to within the






fourth degree either of blood or affinitv, CLVII.-In Grammaticum Eunuchum. and since her death she has been allied to

By the same. thirty more. One instance of her piety has Granımaticam, Diodore, doces, Eunuche, been omilied by Bishop Fisher. She was

puellas : admitted into the fraternity of five several Credo Soloecismum tu, Diodore, facis, religious houfis, (if not more,) Westmin. Cum fis exactus quam nec Sporus ille Nefter, Crowland, Durham, Winburn, and

ronis, the Charter-house in London, which, in

Nec mersus liquidis Hermaphroditus aquis. the strain of that age, as it entitled her to Non unam liquit tibi sæva novacula telthe prayers,

tem, so it gave her a fare in ihe merits, of all these societies. And for

Propria quæ maribus cur, Diodore, legis? her chastity, as it was unspotted in her luæ Genus aut Sexum variant, Heteroclyta marriage, lo fume years before her death

Pofthac, fi fapias tu, Diodore, legas.
She took on her the vow of celibacy, from
Bishop Fisher's hands, in a form yet ex-

METCALFE, the POPISH tant upon our register ; the reason, I sup

MASTER of st. JOHN'S COLLEGE. pose, that her portraiture is usually taken Mr. Baker's Account of the Masters of and depicted with a veil, and in the habit St. John's College, in his Ms Hiftory of of a nun."

that foundation, is written, as we have already observed, with great liberality to all

parties : and to shew that he was also just Thomas Randolph was formerly Fel; Matter, we hall make the following

in his Sketch of Dr. Metcalfe, the Popish low of Trinity College, and possessed extract' from Roger Ascham's excellent much poetical merit, though his writings are now not generally known. After his work entitled the Schoolmatter. death a few of his poems were published,

" Truly Di. Metcalfe was partial to

somethe fitih edition in 1664.

e-was liberal to all; a master for the Prefixed to this volume, after the man.

whole ; a' father to every one in the Colner of those times, are numerous com lege. There was none so poor, if he had plimentary-verses. One of the writers,

either will to goodness, or wit to learning, Mr. West, of Christ Church, Oxford, thus that could lack, bæing there, or hould speaks of these remains ;

depart from thence for any need. I am

witnels myself that money many times But all his works are lott, his fire is out, was brought to young men's Atudies by These are byt 's afhes which are thrown strangers whom they knew'not; in about,

which doing this worthy Nicholas followAnd now rak'd up together ; all we have ed the steps of good old Nicholas, that With pious sacrilege snatch'd from the grave, learned bilhop. He was a Papist indeed ;' Are a few meteors, which may make it said but would to God, among us Protestants, That Tom is yet alive, tho' Randolph's I might find but one that would win like dead.

praile in doing like good for the advance. ment of learning and virtue. And yet,

though he were a Papist, if any young The preceding Number was intended man given to new learning (as they termas an apology for introducing the follow- ed it,) went beyond his fellows in wit, ing verses of Mr. Randolph's : they labour, and towardness, even the same neirequire no other.

ther lacked open praise to encourage him, nor privalę exhibition to maintain him ;

as worthy Sir John Cheke, if he were Music, thou queen of fouls, get up and alive, would bear witnels, and so can many string

alive ; I myself, one of the meanest of a Thy powerful lute, and some fad requiems great number in that college, because fingi

there appeared in me some small shew of Till Alocks require thy echo with a groan, towardness and diligence, lacked not his And the dull clifts repeat the duller tone : favour to farther me in learning, Then on a sudden with a nimble hand

Roger Ascham, as every body knows, Run gently o'er the chords, and so command The pine to dance, the oak his roots forego,

was Queen Elizabeth's classical tutor, and The holme, and aged elm, to foot it too :

fellow of St. John's. He nearly, howMyrtles shall caper, lofty cedars run,

ever, loft his election, having spoken And call the courtly palm to make up one ; against the Pope, at a time when the tide Then in the midst of all the jolly train of opinion in the university ran full in his Strike a sad note, and fix 'em trees again. favour. All the Fellows were against him.

" And




spies ;

“ And yet, (continues Ascham,) for all " Prithee, why (quoth his friend,) are you their open threats, the good father himself

so much surpriz'd, privately secured that I should even then That Saints had their deserts, and were all

canoniz'd?! be chosen Fellow."

Let the liberality of Ascham and Baker, who differed in sentiment so materially On bearing a Genite man who squinted alfrom Dr. Metcalfe, be contrasted with the

fert that the Prophecies were to be un. meannels of Bishop Fell. We copy the

derstood in a double jense. - By the following extract from Mr. Collins's Dif fame.

A double sense no wonder course of Free-thinking :

The fault's not in his head, but in his eyes. " The Right Rev. Bishop Fell cor. rupted in many places Wood's History and CLXIII. - ENGLISH UNIVERSITIES sufAntiquities of the University of Oxford, ceptible of IMPROVEMENT. while it was in the press, and in particu Let no one take offence at the remark lar ftruck out several pariages wherein made in this day's paper, that our colWood had done justice to Hobbes, and leges rose out of the ruins of monasteries, inserted others in their stead derogatory This was but itating an historical fact, to his fame and character. O! this Mr. well known to the whole world, and introWood himself acquainted Mr. Hobbes." duced with all due respect for these anI do not like thee, Dr. Fell

cient seats of literature. Monasteries The reason why those lines may tell, were inftitutions well adapted to the I do not like thee, Dr. Fell,

times in which they were founded, and CLX.-MR.CAMBRIDGE'S JOKE versfied. learning obtained rifuge in them during the

havoc of the dark ages. Our colleges, Mr. O. Cambridge, whose Works

too, are certainly improvements on these have been la:ely publihed by his son, can

old foundations, betier suited to the cir. claim only a nominal relation to our venerable nother, for he was of the Univer. But while they are made into a sort of

cumitances of more enlightened periods. fity of Oxford. But most of his particu. ecclefiaftical corporation ; while we retain Jar friends being of Cambridge, and he himfIf foon leaving Oxford, we have not

which exclude very numerous pergraces

tons from all our colleges, and deprive scrupled to throw a good joke of his into

them of all academical honours; while we very indifferent verse, and take the liber- impose laws neither congenial to the aims ty of presenting it, in this form, to our

of the original founders, to the spirit of Cambridge readers.

reformed societies, nor to :he sentiments Mr. Cambridge, the Author of the WORLD, of the present age, we fall to far below

to bis Wife, wbo taxed him rwith being the standard of perfection; we retard pub. absent at Cburch.

lic improvements; we oppole public lie Quoth Sylvia to her spouse at church one berty ; nor can we offer to houses thus day,

circumscribed that noblest of all titles, na“ You know, my dear, folks come tional institutions. High as our colleges

ftand in the opinion of Europe and of But you ne'er say your prayers, nor sing a all the world in other relpects, in this stave,

respect they fink very low. But we Absent, as if you had no soul to save :

wish for reform, not for desolation ; “ Pray hold your tongue, (quoth Atticus, and hope, therefore, not to fall urder half surl'd,)

the woe

of a learned Doctor ; I'm thinking, deareft, of another World."

choose rather to say, with a father of ihe CLXI.

Church : Ω ανοητοι, συμβαλετε εαυτες ξυλων, The following epigrams, published at Cambridge, were written by a tudent of βλασος γινεται, ειτα φυλλον, ειτα ανθος, και

λαβετε αμπελον πρωτον μεν φυλλορρει· ειτα

μετα ταυτα ομφαξ, ειτα σαφυλη παρεςηκυια, On bearing that the French bad melted

Clementis ad Corintb. Ep. J. down tbeir Sainis to purchase Artillery. CLXIV.—By a STUDENT OF JESUS COLQuoth a reverend priest to a less rev'rend friend,

From off that delicate fair cheek, " Where at length will the crimes of these Oh Maid, too fair, I did but leek French villains end,

To steal a kiss, and lo ! your face, Who their saints and their martyrs thus im With anger or with shame it glows ; piously rell,

What have I done, my gentle Grace, And convert into damnable engines of hell?" But change a lily to a rose ?



church to pray ;




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